Online film izle. Fullhd film izle. Kuran oku, Kuran dinle. As we follow traditional customs, we do it every year habitually, right? Another question is, are there any other decorations essential to our faith life, and if there are, what are they? Let me share three kinds of decorations. All my recent videos where I speak in English comes with multilingual subtitles including English.
It includes the most cherished Bible quotes related to each topic. I do hope it will help! This is an excellent guide to attend interviews. A prospective job seeker can also get excellent tips to cracking hard interview questions in this video. Learn to crack your interview today!
What were your most memorable accomplishments? Discussion of team interview starts at Beginning at , tips for relaxing and acing a job interview. At , a great summary list of topics that will help answer tell me about yourself in less than a minute, followed by a deconstructed example, and tips for constructing your own answer. Laid off or fired? How to answer that question at Job history: job hopping or being someplace a long time?
How do you answer? The interviewing process is a kind of sale. In this case, you are the product—and the salesperson. If you show up unprepared to talk about your unique features and benefits, you're not likely to motivate an interviewer to buy. The sad fact is that many job candidates are unprepared to talk about themselves. You may have mailed a gorgeous resume and cover letter. You may be wearing the perfect clothes on the day of the interview.
But if you can't convince the interviewer—face to face—that you are the right person for the job, you aren't likely to make the sale. Too many candidates hesitate after the first open-ended question, then stumble and stutter their way through a disjointed litany of resume sound bites. Other interviewees recite canned replies that only highlight their memory skills.
Secrets of the Federal Reserve: U. Economy, Finance and Wealth. The Federal Reserve System, known colloquially as the Fed, has faced various criticisms since its conception in The system was created as a third attempt at central banking in the United States. About the book: The Federal Reserve Act, which began the Fed, was a hotly debated issue in its own right. Some economists, such as John Taylor, have asserted that the Fed was responsible, or at least partially responsible, for the United States housing bubble which occurred prior to the recession.
They claim that the Fed kept interest rates too low following the recession, The housing bubble then led to the credit crunch. Then-Chairman Alan Greenspan disputes this interpretation. He points out that the Fed's control over the long-term interest rates critics have in mind is only indirect. The Fed did raise the short term interest rate over which it has control i.
The Federal Reserve's role as a supervisor and regulator has been criticized as being ineffective. Former U. Senator Chris Dodd, then-chairman of the United States Senate Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs, remarked about the Fed's role in the present economic crisis, We saw over the last number of years when they took on consumer protection responsibilities and the regulation of bank holding companies, it was an abysmal failure.
In the midterm elections, the Tea Party movement, comprising conservatives, made the Federal Reserve a major point of attack; it was picked up by Republican candidates across the country. Fed officials have hotly denied that.
GOP Senate candidate Rand Paul in Kentucky, whose father Congressman Ron Paul has long attacked the Fed, argues that the Fed is hurting the economy by lowering the dollar and by its easy money policies that cause booms and busts. One criticism of the Fed, typified by the non-mainstream Austrian School, is that the Federal Reserve's control of interest rates is an unnecessary and counterproductive interference in the economy.
The individual Federal Reserve Banks are the operating arms of the central banking system, and they combine both public and private elements in their makeup and organization. Each bank has a nine member board of directors: three elected by the commercial banks in the Bank's region, and six chosen—three each by the member banks and the Board of Governors--to represent the public with due consideration to the interests of agriculture, commerce, industry, services, labor and consumers.
These regional banks are in turn controlled by the Federal Reserve Board, whose members are appointed by the President of the United States. Another objection is the Fed's lack of transparency. John P. Milton is a meditation and Qigong instructor, author, and a pioneering environmentalist. He is the founder of Sacred Passage and the Way of Nature.
About the book: He pioneered vision questing in contemporary Western culture in the s. In , at the time he began his sacred solo retreats in the wilderness, vision quests were unknown in the Americas outside Native American culture. He received his M. A founding father of the environmental movement in the early s, he was a professor of environmental studies and a Woodrow Wilson Center scholar at the Smithsonian Institution.
He was one of the first ecologists on staff at the White House as a member of the President's Council of Economic Advisors, and was a founding member of the environmental organization Friends of the Earth. He is a frequent lecturer and workshop leader, and a pioneering, renowned, and sought-after meditation and Qi Gong teacher. Thousands of people have sought his instruction since he began teaching in the s. He has developed unique practices for uniting inner and outer nature through training in Buddhist, Taoist, Vedantic, Tantric, and Native American spiritual traditions, and he incorporates T'ai chi and yoga in his work.
John's work in the world is also featured on the Transition United States web site. His books and articles focus on inner development, Qi Gong and ecology. He recently published the book Sky Above, Earth Below. Devotees of Milton say his programs inspire Earth stewardship by cultivating natural wisdom and an open, loving heart in the wild.
John Milton lives in Tucson, Arizona. Here the material reached new levels of sophistication. The writing was taut, and the casting, which had always been a strong point of the series featuring such film stars as Orson Welles, Joseph Cotten, Henry Fonda, Humphrey Bogart, Judy Garland, Ronald Colman, Marlene Dietrich, Eve McVeagh, Lena Horne, and Cary Grant , took an unexpected turn when Lewis expanded the repertory to include many of radio's famous drama and comedy stars — often playing against type — such as Jack Benny.
The highest production values enhanced Suspense, and many of the shows retain their power to grip and entertain. On the May 10, Suspense, Lewis reversed the roles with Death on My Hands: A bandleader Harris is horrified when an autograph-seeking fan accidentally shoots herself and dies in his hotel room, and a vocalist Faye tries to help him as the townfolk call for vigilante justice against him. Robson and others struggled to maintain the series despite shrinking budgets, the availability of fewer name actors, and listenership decline.
To save money, the program frequently used scripts first broadcast by another noteworthy CBS anthology, Escape. In addition to these tales of exotic adventure, Suspense expanded its repertoire to include more science fiction and supernatural content. By the end of its run, the series was remaking scripts from the long-canceled program The Mysterious Traveler. A time travel tale like Robert Arthur's The Man Who Went Back to Save Lincoln or a thriller about a death ray-wielding mad scientist would alternate with more run-of-the-mill crime dramas.
Rosenquist was already famous because home radios could tune into early police radio frequencies. As the first police radio dispatcher presented to the public ear, his was the voice that actors went to when called upon for a radio dispatcher role. The iconic television series Dragnet, with LAPD Detective Joe Friday as the primary character, was the first major media representation of the department. Real LAPD operations inspired Jack Webb to create the series and close cooperation with department officers let him make it as realistic as possible, including authentic police equipment and sound recording on-site at the police station.
Edgar Hoover, the most well known and respected law enforcement official in the nation. In the s, when the LAPD under Chief Thomas Reddin expanded its community relations division and began efforts to reach out to the African-American community, Dragnet followed suit with more emphasis on internal affairs and community policing than solving crimes, the show's previous mainstay.
Noire and Call of Juarez: The Cartel. The LAPD has also been the subject of numerous novels. Elizabeth Linington used the department as her backdrop in three different series written under three different names, perhaps the most popular being those novel featuring Det.
Luis Mendoza, who was introduced in the Edgar-nominated Case Pending. Joseph Wambaugh, the son of a Pittsburgh policeman, spent fourteen years in the department, using his background to write novels with authentic fictional depictions of life in the LAPD. Wambaugh was also a major influence on James Ellroy, who wrote several novels about the Department set during the s and s, the most famous of which are probably The Black Dahlia, fictionalizing the LAPD's most famous cold case, and L.
Confidential, which was made into a film of the same name. Both the novel and the film chronicled mass-murder and corruption inside and outside the force during the Parker era. Critic Roger Ebert indicates that the film's characters from the s represent the choices ahead for the LAPD: assisting Hollywood limelight, aggressive policing with relaxed ethics, and a straight arrow approach. Aiding and abetting the periodically frantic life in the Gildersleeve home was family cook and housekeeper Birdie Lee Coggins Lillian Randolph.
Although in the first season, under writer Levinson, Birdie was often portrayed as saliently less than bright, she slowly developed as the real brains and caretaker of the household under writers John Whedon, Sam Moore and Andy White. In many of the later episodes Gildersleeve has to acknowledge Birdie's commonsense approach to some of his predicaments. By the early s, Birdie was heavily depended on by the rest of the family in fulfilling many of the functions of the household matriarch, whether it be giving sound advice to an adolescent Leroy or tending Marjorie's children.
By the late s, Marjorie slowly matures to a young woman of marrying age. The event was popular enough that Look devoted five pages in its May 23, issue to the wedding. After living in the same household for a few years with their twin babies Ronnie and Linda, the newlyweds move next door to keep the expanding Gildersleeve clan close together.
Leroy, aged during most of the s, is the all-American boy who grudgingly practices his piano lessons, gets bad report cards, fights with his friends and cannot remember to not slam the door. Although he is loyal to his Uncle Mort, he is always the first to deflate his ego with a well-placed Ha!!! Beginning in the Spring of , he finds himself in junior high and is at last allowed to grow up, establishing relationships with the girls in the Bullard home across the street.
From an awkward adolescent who hangs his head, kicks the ground and giggles whenever Brenda Knickerbocker comes near, he transforms himself overnight November 28, into a more mature young man when Babs Winthrop both girls played by Barbara Whiting approaches him about studying together. From then on, he branches out with interests in driving, playing the drums and dreaming of a musical career.
The Great Gildersleeve , initially written by Leonard Lewis Levinson, was one of broadcast history's earliest spin-off programs. Built around Throckmorton Philharmonic Gildersleeve, a character who had been a staple on the classic radio situation comedy Fibber McGee and Molly, first introduced on Oct. As such, it has no parallel in Africa. The festival is celebrated not only in Oromia, but has become an event which is observed transnationally by tens of thousands of Oromos settled in many countries around the world.
This paper aims to shed light on the role of the irreecha festival in the expression of Oromo unity and national identity. I will describe the role of numerous pan-Oromo socio-cultural and historical symbols and artefacts which the festival has brought to light, in awakening the Oromo sense of belonging to a community. The pan-Oromo democratic tradition is reflected in the artefacts displayed in the irreecha parade, in the blessings of elders who officiate it, in the environmental ethics articulated and in the performances of artist who entertain the celebrants.
In the pre-colonial past, the Irreecha Birra marked the end of the rainy season and the beginning of harvest season. It is an Oromo custom to gather on the river banks and the shores of lakes and give thanks to Waaqa God for all his bounty and pray for Nagaa peace and Araara reconciliation among humans and with God. Today, the festival has come to mark the end of the rainy season, and more. It marks the end of the cultural trauma which had affected the Oromo for about a century.
It denotes victory over a history of cultural denigration. Like in the past, the haayyuu elders, wisemen, the learned — both singular and plural thank God and bless the nation as their ancestors did. They bless the nation; they remind their audience to uphold the Oromo ethics of safuu and nagaa respect and peace , reconcile among themselves and pray to God to reconcile with them.
Although many of the Oromo concepts, vocabulary and semantics the haayyuu use are archaic, the meanings of their blessing and sagacious counsel are comprehensible to their audience. The following is a rough translation of an excerpt from the counsel and blessing of a haayyuu who officiated an irreecha festival outside the city of Naqamtee in Shall evil have no place amongst you?
Shall hate have no place amongst you? Shall truth find you? Is this your testimony before God? Let peace be among all! Let peace be among adults! Let peace be among the youth! Let peace be with the livestock! He reminded the participants the connection that the occasion has with the Oromo heritage and counsels and commands them to confirm the authenticity of the occasion. He asked them whether spirit of the celebration is aligned with the spirit of Oromo traditions as reflected in the laws of the five major Odaas: Odaa Nabee in central Oromia , Odaa Bisil in western Oromia , Odaa Bulluq in north-western Oromia , Odaa Roobaa in south-eastern Oromia and Odaa Bultum in eastern Oromia.
He asked them whether the traditions of Madda Walaabuu are respected. The five Odaas were centers of the ancient gadaa republics where the Oromo met and elected their leaders and reviewed their laws and made new ones every eight years according to the constitution of the nation, and Madda Walaabuu was the seat of Abba Muuda , the high priest of traditional Oromo religion Waaqefannaa. The response of the celebrants is in the affirmative.
This was followed by another moment of blessing which, roughly translated, said the following. You shall not conspire against one another You shall not betray one another Let God be at peace with you Let the Earth be at peace with you. The significance of this ritual is not that the counsel of the haayyuu is translated into action, but the historical and cultural knowledge it conveys and the consciousness it raises in the minds of the audience.
The past is memorized and communicated not only by the haayyuu but is also stored and reflected in the array of artefacts and costumes that decorate the irreecha parade. Combined with sagacious words of the haayyuu , the rich symbols of the Oromo gadaa culture — that attire the multitude who march in total harmony — reveal the dignity and pride with which the Oromo nation is re-asserting its culture and identity.
The collective memories of the nation, preserved in the ritual and symbols, then expressed in the words of the haayyuu , are supplemented by young artists who herald the revival of their heritage with songs and dances. They herald the recovery, revival and survival of the Oromo culture from the destruction to which it was doomed by conquest and colonization.
In short, they reflect the feelings which underpin the ongoing Oromo recovery from a century of cultural trauma. Their lyrics imply that the earth, the forests, rivers, lakes, animals and all the other living things are both natural and divine. Their implicit message is that what hurts the eco-system hurts humans also.
The dynamics that are at work during the irreecha festivals and what the participants experience is more than what the eye can see or the ear can hear. It is a joy and sense of belonging and experience of being part of a community that cannot be expressed fully in words. It is more. What the participants experience is a resurrection of a nation and a reconstruction of collective memory through the festival and the array of artefacts it displays. This collective reality connotes a state of being of the same mind, sharing a collective memory about a shared past and, just as importantly, an aspiration for a common future.
This is more than a product of individual perception or understanding. I believe that this is my culture and religion at the same time. This is what was forwarded to us by our ancestors; and it is what I will forward to my children.
His feeling is shared by other Oromo participants around him and those who watch the process on TV. They may or may not express what they see and feel with words, but most of them, share with him the experience that what they see is their culture symbolized in the festival. When human communities attach symbols to words, concepts and artefacts that signify their collective experience, they share a vision. A society cannot exist without a degree of this sort of vision shared by a majority of its members.
The young respondent cited above says that what he sees is his culture and religion which was passed to him by his ancestors and which he will pass over to his children. In other words, what he sees reflects his identity and that of others around him. As an occasion and venue for the symbolic expression of Oromo history and culture, the irreecha festival connects the Oromo to a common past through the tangible artefacts on displays in the massive parades.
It important to note here that the Oromo celebrate the irreecha irrespective of their religious backgrounds. Whether they are Waaqeffataa, Christians or Muslims they participate in the festival. The moral counsel and ideals officiated by the haayyuu do not contradict the essence of any of the three religions. In fact the haayyuu who officiate it are from all the three religions on most occasions. The festival unites the Oromo and harmonizes their thoughts and voices.
Whether one interprets the occasion culturally or politically, the significance of the prayer, counsel and blessing of the haayyuu and the songs of the artists in raising Oromo consciousness and unifying the nation cannot be overlooked. The occasion is to celebrate a tradition and its revival.
The traditional Oromo ethics of safuu and nagaa , or respect for and peace with God, humans and the natural world pervade the atmosphere in which the festival is conducted. As I will explain in more detail below, the tranquillity which the occasion demands is respected. It is important to note here that the tranquillity that has characterized the Bishoftu irreecha parade of millions of men, women and children during the last few years is not a sign that the participants are satisfied with their situation or the status quo.
The tranquility reflected in the massive annual parades should not give us the impression that Oromia is a peaceful territory and that Ethiopia is a stable polity. In fact, the benedictions of the haayyuu who officiate the festival are often underpinned by restrained feelings of dissatisfaction.
The songs of the artists who entertain the participants contain anger felt against the prevailing political conditions. During the irreecha festival, for example, the prayers of the elders were marked by a feeling of grief for the Oromo students who had been cruelly killed by the agents of the regime because they were opposing the so-called Addis Ababa Master Plan. The haayyuu were not calling their audience to make war, but praying for the restoration of justice and for Oromo victory over all those who are harming or will harm them.
In short, the bright colors, the melodious songs and entertaining dances we observe in the irreecha parades do not signify Oromo satisfaction with their present situation in Ethiopia. We cannot expect a people whose youth are killed cruelly by a dictatorial regime, or, a people who are evicted from their homes and land, or, a people who are rounded up routinely and are thrown into jail en masse without the rule of law, to be satisfied. The celebrants of the irreecha festival were immensely dissatisfied with the Tigrayan regime.
The irreecha festival is an occasion that requires such tranquility. To feel anger about the injustice is normal and expected, but to express it would violate the spirit of a sacred occasion that Oromos greatly value. It would be considered immoral to disturb it. During the last ten years the peace was disturbed by measures taken against participants of the festival: visitors were beaten, and many were imprisoned.
Some of them were wounded by bullets fired by the police. Yet the Oromo have continued to come to Lake Arsadi in an ever increasing numbers to continue with the revival of their ancient culture. After decades of suppression, the spontaneity with which irreecha , and other Oromo traditions, have come back to life during the last two decades has proved the resilience of Oromo culture. They symbolize justice, peace, and sovereignty which the Oromo of the gadaa republics enjoyed in the past. In fact, the bokkuu which are carried by men and siqqee carried by women, as well as a range of other pre-colonial pan-Oromo gadaa symbols which are lined-up prominently by participants in the irreecha parade, reinforce the memories and values shared by the multitude gathered at the festival sites as well as those who are following the event in the media from afar, whether in Oromia or in the diaspora.
The bokkuu and siiqqee are the symbols of the democratic ethos of the gadaa system. The bokkuu, a scepter which is carried by elderly men, is the symbol of the gadaa system, signifying both power and justice. As a symbol of gadaa democracy the siiqqee stood for the inalienable rights of Oromo women and the inviolability of their human dignity. It is a symbol for an institution within the gadaa system. The siiqqee entitles Oromo women to prticipate in many instances of decision making, in conflict resolution and other important matters that concern their society.
The authenticity of the irreecha festival is reflected not only in the artefacts displayed in the parade or the blessings conducted by the hayyuu and songs sung by the artists, but is also in the amazing harmony which pervades the gathering of millions of people: the festival is serene; it proceeds peacefully and ends without incidents.
Those who claim belongingness to such a collectivity share a culture, the elements of which are given significance in ritual practice. Thus, the array of symbols, such as the ones displayed in in the irreecha parades, constructs a narrative which holds together the imagination of a people and provides bases of harmonious thought and collective action.
Nations around the world organize parades for different reasons. Some organize them to commemorate historical events such as their victories in battles or day of national independence. Others use parades to exhibit their cultural achievements or display technological progress.
The irreecha festival, in the form it takes in Bishoftu today is, by and large, a national parade organized to celebrate the revival of Oromo culture. It heralds Oromo victory over ethnocide, or the attempted destruction of their culture by Ethiopian regimes. The costumes which the majority in the parade wear and the artefacts they carry reflect the culture and history which the different branches of the Oromo nation had shared and preserved.
It is a history and culture which they rejoice with pride and will revive and defend. For the Oromo people, the consequences of the Abyssinian conquest was prolonged cultural trauma. The irreecha festival heralds that the Oromo are now leaving behind that trauma. The irreecha is taking the place of the ancient muudaa pilgrimage. What is very significant about the festival is that the multitude of men and women who converge on Bishoftu city from all over the Oromo country celebrate a culture that was denigrated, despised and suppressed for about a century.
Such a massive gathering is reminiscent of another aspect of Oromo culture. The spontaneous pan-Oromo participation in the festival suggests the manner in which the ancient pilgrimage to Abbaa Muuda was undertaken by thousands of jila pilgrims from the different gadaa federations. The pilgrimage to the holy muuda shrines attracted every eighth year tens of thousands of men who represented every Oromo clan from every corner of the Oromo country.
Today, the irreecha festival celebrated on the shores of Lake Arsadi is playing a similar role. The jila pilgrimage was both a religious and a political undertaking. Those who traveled on foot for months every eight years to the muuda shrines from regions which are far apart, were drawn together by a myth of origin from one ancestor, Orma. This was reinforced by a common language, a common religion through a strong attachment to their spiritual leader Abba Muuda , a common system of law, a shared attitude toward the natural world as well as their democratic character — all gave the Oromo who lived in different gadaa republics a sense of a single nation.
The muuda institution maintained the moral unity of the Oromo nation until it was banned in by Emperor Menelik. The ban exacerbated the traumatic disruption of Oromo culture which I have mentioned above. The revival of the irreecha festival is a major step in dispelling the distortion of Oromo self-perception as a nation that was created by the disruption of conquest and colonization.
It is important to recollect here that it was the Macca Tuulama Association MTA that paved the way to take the Oromo nation into the present phase of their history. It is a well known fact that the activities of the MTA launched the recovery of the Oromo nation from the cultural and political traumas of conquest and colonization. It became the first forum to gather members of the Oromo branches from different parts of their country for a common purpose decades after the jila pilgrimages were banned by the imperial Ethiopian government.
It was also by the initiative of the MTA members that the Lake Arsadi irreecha festival was revived in the mids overcoming the restrictive surveillance of the present Ethiopian regime. The MTA was banned and its leaders were imprisoned for the second time in , but the irreversible work of Oromo cultural revival that had started fifty years ago has continued on a large scale as reflected in the Irreecha festival.
Although the aim of the journey taken by Oromo masses to Lake Arsadi today is not exactly the same as those which stimulated the pilgrimage to the muuda shrines in the past, the effects are similar. It brings people from every corner of the Oromo country to one place. The irreecha festivals have re-established the sense of belonging to a single nation by the different branches of the Oromo nation in the way that the jila pilgrimage did in the past.
The national consciousness created by the irreecha festival may be even deeper than the awareness that was created by the muuda pilgrimages and kept the Oromo nation intact in the past. Covered by mass media which takes the festival home to millions of Oromos at home and transnationally, the annual event makes Oromo imagination of their national community more vivid, immediate and real than it had ever been in the past. As a cultural and religious site Lake Arsadi is located in a district which, de facto, was a holy land for the Oromo.
Odaa Nabee, one of the oldest and most historic and ritually significant sites of the gadaa assemblies, is located about 15 km north of the lake. Scholars of Oromo studies have argued that mountains were seen as ceremonial grounds in the past and that the tops of the mountains mentioned here were used for that purpose.
In fact, the shores of a crater lake on Mt. Cuqqaalaa was a site for the irreecha festival for centuries. In short, the proliferation of ritual sites indicates the importance which the region has in the religious and political lives of the Oromo. It is well known that Abyssinian kings and Orthodox clergy built churches in the lands they conquered to serve their soldiers and settlers, and in some cases also to Christianize the conquerd peoples.
However, the policy did not succeed; the place names were reversed back to Oromo names in the s, and now the irreecha festival is reviving the cultural identity of the district. Waqeffannaa , the traditional Oromo religion, with which the irreecha is culturally aligned, is also reviving. This does not meant there is no opposition to the re-instution of the Oromo heritage. The denigration of the Oromo religious festival has not stopped.
The opposition of the Orthodox clergy seems to be even more marked against the celebration of the Spring irreecha on the shores of the crater lake on Mount Cuqqalaa. As mentioned above, the shores of that crater lake is an ancient site where the Oromo festival was celebrated for centuries. A monastery run by Orthodox Christians had also existed since the twelvth century on the same mountain.
Its clergy had co-existed with the Oromo who follow their own religious tradition and celebrated irreecha festival on the shores of the crater lake. On the part of the Oromo, who do not see the co-existence of the different religions as a problem, this is not surprising. What is remarkable is the decision of the Orthodox clergy to share the shores of a small lake for ritual purposes with a people their church considers as heathen. According to oral tradition the remarkable co-existence was a result of an agreement made with the Oromo by a bishop who founded the monastery.
The condition which forced the bishop to accept the coexistence of the two religion is not clear. Ironically, the tolerance which the Orthodox clergy have shown over the centuries has changed into irrational opposition in recent years and the co-existance between the two religious communities is distrubed. According to my informant, the Oromo have been forbidden to celebrate the irreecha festival on Mount Cuqqaalaa since According to the same source, the resistance of the clergy is against the revival of the Oromo religious culture.
Above all, based on the religious backgrounds of the millions of people who participate in the irreecha festival and the haayyyuu who officiate it, one can say that today Bishoftu is a sacred place not only for Waaqeffataa followers of the traditional Oromo religion , but also for Christians and Muslims. That shows that in Oromia people from all religious background are welcome. But, religious fanaticism is not.
It is detested. The festival refutes many of the misconceptions which are created by Ethiopianist narratives. The revival of the irreecha festival in such a manner and on such a scale confirms, among others, that time when the Oromo were made to feel shame about their history, culture and identity; and the time when they strived to behave like or speak the language of their conquerors in order to be taken as Ethiopians is gone.
It is also interesting to note here the profound refutation the festival offers to the Ethiopianist misconception of Oromo history, culture and identity. It refutes the misconception that the Oromo are a mixed bag of different tribes who do not share a common past or have a collective identity. It has been argued by Ethiopianist historians that the Oromo lack a sense of community and solidarity and possess no collective memory or corporate history.
For those who will understand Oromo culture and history it suffices to watch the irreecha festival. It narrates a cultural history shared by an entire nation. Given what is said about the irreecha in this article, the following can be concluded.
From the historical point of view, a recent and clear manifestation of the resilience of Oromo cultural heritage is that the Oromo have, in the face of a vicious colonial repression, preserved the irreecha. This achievement shall be added to the preservation of important aspects of the Oromo gadaa system and the traditional Oromo religion, Waaqefannaa. Indeed, this confirms that time when the Oromo were made to feel shame about their culture is gone for good, and the time has arrived when the Oromo culture assumes the place it deserves as a noteworthy cultural heritage of Africa and a significant contribution to global culture.
Taking into account the colorful costumes of its celebrants, it is clear that the festival has brought out expressions, colors, and art forms that are uniquely Oromo but which were hidden from public sight in the past. It is incumbent on Oromo artists, designers, scholars and organizers of festivals and Oromo events to polish and create quality out of the treasure of Oromo arts, artefacts and narratives that have been preserved by their people and are now manifested in abundance in Oromo oral literature and cultural traditions, including in the irreecha festival.
In short, the festival is an occasion that can be used by the Oromo to introduce themselves and their unique African culture to the world community. As a parting word, I would like to point out that as an event which attracts millions of participants from near and far, the Bishoftu irreecha festival is becoming a major income generating event.
Unfortunately, most of the beneficiaries are not Oromo. Frantz Fanon has reminded us that the poverty of a colonized people, national oppression and the inhibition of their culture are one and the same thing see his Wretched of the Earth. This has been the fate of the Oromo. Because of the policy of the previous Ethiopian regimes, the majority of property owners in and around the city of Bishoftu are no longer Oromo. The income generated by the lease or sale of their land to local and international contractors along with the value generated by their cultural significance is not benefiting the Oromo.
For the irreecha festival to benefit them, the displacement of the Oromo should cease, and the so-called Addis Ababa Master Plan AAMP , which is encroaching on the district from the north, should be stopped. If the Plan continues, the irreecha festival will soon end up celebrated in a territory bereft of its Oromo inhabitants and culture. He is an active member of the OLF and has served in the different branches of the national movement since the s.
Irreechaa Birraa is a celebration that repeats once in a year-in birraa and involves special activities or amusements as it has a lot of importance in our lives. We celebrate Irreechaa to thank Waaqaa for the blessings and mercies we have received throughout the past year at the sacred grounds of Hora Harsadi Lake Harsadi , Bishoftu, Oromia. The Irreechaa festival is celebrated every year at the beginning of Birraa the sunny new season after the dark, rainy winter season throughout Oromia and around the world where Diaspora Oromos live.
We celebrate Irreechaa not only to thank Waaqaa God also to welcome the new season of plentiful harvests after the dark and rainy winter season associated with nature and creature. On Irreechaa festivals, friends, family, and relatives gather together and celebrate with joy and happiness. Irreechaa Festivals bring people closer to each other and make social bonds.
Oromo communities both at home and abroad celebrate this National Thanksgiving Day every year. The Oromian Irreechaa Festival will not only serve as a medium for bringing all Oromias together, from all its diasporas, as one voice, but will also focus on promoting and enhancing Oromummaa in freedom struggle, tourism, arts and crafts, business, restaurants and hospitality, and entertainment. Moreover as a moving and flourishing heritage, Irreechaa also connects our Oromo identity with the global civilization in which the industrial and manufacturing sectors of heavy and light machinery of natural resources and raw materials.
During the event, we will be serving with Oromo foods and featuring with traditional dances by Oromo children, youth and dance troupes. Ilmaan oromoo kannen dhihoo fi fagoo jiraattan hundi jila dudhaa ganamaa kana irratti uffata aadaatiin of miidhagsitanii akka ayyaana kana irratti hirmaattan kabajaa guddaa wajjiin sin afeerra. Malkaa jilaa dhufuudhaaf, baabura lafa jalaa Metro laakkofsa3 Sognsvann gara kallattii lixaa deemu west bound yaabbadhaa; buufatni isaa kan maayyii Sognsvann suduudaan isin fida.
Erga qophiin irreechaa raawwatee booda qophii…. Halkan guutuu waliin taphataa bulla. Ykn Stovner Senter irraa bus 65 yoo qabattanii bakka Smedstua jedhutti irraa buutani, bakki qophichaa cinaadhuma sanatti argama. Sagantaa ayyana kanaa Galma, semenaraa fi Artistoota ammoo duuban isin dhaqabsiifna. H tti akka kabajamu Uummataaf ibsi kennameera. Among others, she was also cheered by her Oromo supporters in Norway. Oromo athletes Sinbiree and Galate Burqa completed 2nd and 4th respectively.
Fiigicha meetira dubartoota jiddutti Waxabajji 11 Bara Noorweey magaalaa Oslootti geggeeffameen atleetonni Oromoo Oromiyaa injifannoo guddaa argamsiisaniiru. Ganzabeen daqiiqaa n fiigicha mt kana kan xumurte. Akka eegamee ture rikoordii obboleettii isii, Xurunesh Dibaabaa,osoo hinfooyyessin hafte, garuu. Galateen yeroo daqiqaa tokko hincaalleen atleet Viyoolaa Jelegaat biyya Keeniyaatiin durfamtee sadarkaa 3ffaa kan dhabdeef. Hiree gadhee! The world m champion Mohammed Aman won over two laps of the track in a world-leading Despite the windy conditions, Sutume was 19 seconds faster than Ejegayehu Dibaba in Chicago in The Oromian was more than four minutes faster than second placed Kenyan Winny Jepkorir who clocked Elizeba Cherono of Kenya was third with Sutume set two lifetime bests en route to victory: at 10km, and through the halfway mark.
Only world record-holder Tirunesh Dibaba She has form. Even then it would have been doubtful as the field was spread out all around the track. It was never hard to spot Ayana, however; you just looked for the woman who was obviously running fast. With Global Sports physiotherapist Joost Vollaard helping with translation, Ayana said she was not aware of how close she was to the world record. Based in Finfinnee, Ayana is training just outside the city. She is coached by her husband, m runner Soresa Fida.
The story of the day was the spirit of competition, as the entirety of the race was contested in the best possible manner. Mamitu Daska produced a world-class performance, winning the run but missing the overall course record by 9 seconds.
Mamitu ended the race on a high, steering ahead of the competition by a clear 13 seconds, she ended the run with an overall time of Although Mamitu had pulled far into the lead, the battle for second and third was a thrilling encounter with both Wude Ayalew and Gladys Chesir exchanging positions at the 7km mark.
Wude raced ahead by two seconds finishing second at Though I was comfortable for the first four kilometres, it got a bit tougher. However I took initiative to push myself after that and crossed the finish line before my competition. The race to claim top honours was tightly contested with the top three finishers separated by 2 seconds each, Geremew emerged victorious, clocking in a time of His fellow countryman Fikadu Seboka finished second with a timing of , followed by Edwin Kiptoo from Kenya who finished his run in The middle-distance runner became the first sportsperson from Ethiopia to win an award in any category at the prestigious event, which began in Dibaba was rewarded for her season in which she set world indoor records for m and m as well as a world indoor best for two miles.
Outdoors, she went on to record world-leading times over m and m before ending her season with m victory at the IAAF Continental Cup in Marrakech. On a night in which Renaud Lavillenie, Valerie Adams and Jo Pavey were nominated for other awards, Dibaba was the only winner from the sport of athletics. Adams was nominated in the same category as Dibaba, while Lavillenie was nominated for the sportsman of the year award, which was given to tennis star Novak Djokovic. Pavey was one of the contenders for the comeback of the year award, which eventually went to rugby player Schalk Burger.
But other legendary athletes played a part in the ceremony. Two-time world indoor champion Genzebe Dibaba narrowly missed out on breaking the world best at the Carlsbad , but her winning time of was the second-fastest ever recorded for 5km on the roads. The year-old owns the fastest times in history across four distances indoors, and had been hoping to add another mark to her growing collection. Just like three of her indoor record-breaking performances, she was targeting a time that had been set by Meseret Defar.
The two-time Olympic champion ran in Carlsbad in Injifannoo gammachisaa!!! He finished ninth overall in 2. Seboka Tola was 3rd in mens marathon. Injifannoo atileetota Oromoo. Oromo athletes E. Shumi and B. Endeshaw Negesse Shumi — 2.
Stephen Kiprotich — — NR 3. Dickson Chumba- 4. Shumi Dechase — 5. Peter Some — 6. Markos Geneti — 7. Masato Imai — — PB 8. Tsegaye Kebede — 9. Hiroaki Sano — — PB Benjamin — — PB. Birhane Dibaba — 2. Helah Kiprop — — PB 3. Tiki Gelana — 4. Selly Chepyego — 5. Flomena Cheyech Daniel — 6. Yeshi Esayias — 7. Madoka Ogi — 8. Albina Mayorova — 9. Yukari Abe - Yumiko Kinoshita — — PB. Their country mate, management graduate Belay Shimelis stood third.
World indoor champion Oromo athlete Genzebe Dibaba clocked Oromo athlete Genzebe Dibaba is now the holder of four world indoor records or world bests after clocking With that time the two-time world indoor gold medallist beat the previous world indoor m record set by her compatriot Meseret Defar — also run in Stockholm in — by more than five seconds. Her m split time of is the quickest that distance has been run so far this year. Dibaba adds this most recent world record to the world indoor records she ran over m and m and the world indoor best she clocked over 2 miles all within 15 days last year.
The m record was run at XL Galan, with Defar the previous holder of that record, too. On Thursday Dibaba finished more than a minute clear of her closest rival, Birtukan Fente, who ran Oromo athletes filled the top three spots as Birtukan Adamu was third with Read more as follows:.
British distance runner Jo Pavey, who won the European 10,m title in Zurich last summer at the age of 40 and just 10 months after giving birth, is nominated in the Comeback of the Year category. The 16th Laureus World Sports Awards will recognise sporting achievement during the calendar year of and is the premier honours event on the international sporting calendar. The winners are voted for by the Laureus World Sports Academy, which is made up of 48 of the greatest sportsmen and sportswomen of all time, and they will be unveiled at a globally televised Awards Ceremony staged in the Grand Theatre, Shanghai, on Wednesday 15 April.
Each year we think the list of Nominees cannot get better, but then it does. The Sportsman of the Year and Team of the Year categories look amazing. My best friend in athletics is Soresa Fida a m runner who is also my husband and always my first source of advice. My best achievement is the m victory at the Continental Cup in Marrakech The other one would be winning a bronze medal in the m at the Moscow World Championships, which was a real breakthrough performance.
Every one of us, wherever we live or whoever we are, must work for peacefulness in our world. We are given this world to live in for free and leave it only by the grace of almighty God. I have a weakness in terms of the finish of my races. This is something I am working hard to improve. I am always highly disappointed when I cannot make a good result in top competitions, like at the IAAF Diamond League in Brussels Almaz placed down in ninth in the m.
I was living in a very small rented room for long time, but recently I bought my own residential house where I am living with my beloved husband. It was an impressive stadium with a great atmosphere and crowd. Had this not happened, I would have run under 7. The Spaniard was languishing down in fifth place with 7. The French vaulter initially looked a bit off his game, after going over 6. He then recovered on his next attempt, posting a meeting record of 5.
Susanna Kallur returned to the city of her world record in the 60m hurdles, running a competitive race over the barriers for the first time since The Swede, in the wake of her well-documented injury woes over the past few years, posted creditable 8. Lelisa Desisa, the Dubai and Boston Marathon champion, took second in while Deribe Robi completed the all-Ethiopian podium with a time of Indeed, the top 12 men were all Ethiopian runners. Split times of for 5km and for 10km initially pointed towards a sub finishing time.
However, the pacemakers could not sustain the pace and when a group of 15 runners reached the 25km mark in , none of them was left in the race. It was Desisa who surged ahead at the 30km refreshment station to take his bottle. Five kilometres from the finish a duel between Desisa, who was also second in New York last November, and Lemi Berhanu developed and the latter was able to drop the much more experienced Desisa with about one kilometre to go.
With around one kilometre to go, I sensed that I could succeed. He had been in the leading group up to the 28km mark. At the end of November, he had to reduce training because of this but then it got better and, actually, his final training sessions looked encouraging. A world record was never a realistic target, but a time seemed realistic. I think this is the reason why he developed hamstring problems.
I think he will do really well. Having taken an extensive break from competition to have a baby, the and Dubai champion returned to run a marathon for the first time since her disappointing 42nd place at the Olympics and won in , just 31 seconds outside her course record from three years ago.
Another Kenyan, Lucy Kabuu, was third in in a race which saw 10 women run faster than However, Tufa paid the price in the end and was caught at 34km by a five-woman group consisting of Mergia, fellow Ethiopians Aberu Kebede and Shure Demissie, Kabuu and Cherono. The group was reduced to three with just over three kilometres remaining after Kebede and Demissie were dropped, before Mergia eventually proved the strongest in the final kilometre.
Fourth was teenager Demissie in a world junior best of , and the fifth fastest debut on record; with Kebede in , Dubai champion Mulu Seboka in and then Alemu Bekele in the next three women across the line. The organisers had made some adjustments to the route due to some construction-related concerns in the city. Some of the more undulating parts of the course — including the Yanwu Bridge that stretches over the sea — had been taken out.
When Dibaba won in Xiamen last year, she took 61 seconds off the course record and crossed the line five minutes ahead of her nearest rival. Dibaba built up a significant lead in the early stages of the race and maintained it all the way to the finish, despite some problems with her legs after 33km. By equalling her PB of , she covered the course one minute and 44 seconds quicker than she did last year, finishing almost eight minutes ahead of Meseret Legesse, who once again finished second to Dibaba for the second year running.
Legesse was about a minute slower than last year, finishing second in It was the second time the year-old had made it on to the podium in Xiamen, having finished second on her marathon debut in But in recent times, the year-old has struggled to recapture that form. He finished eighth at the Chicago Marathon and a distant 12th in Prague last May, clocking So when he lined up in Xiamen, he was something of an unknown quantity.
A pack of 10 runners ran shoulder to shoulder after 7. The pace maker dropped out at the 30km mark, but the pace did not slow down. The leading trio ran alongside one another for a further 5km before Milaw slowed down. Winning in Xiamen at the start of the season is a huge boost for me.
Regassa was also inside the previous course record, clocking in second place. Tola was a distant fifth in Dorgommii biyya keessaa fi biyya alaallee taatu yoo hedduu jaruma. Dhiiraan ammo Azmaraa Beqqelee tokkeesoso, Addunyaa Taakkelee lammeessoo. Maratoonii km Indiitti dorgoman Guyyee Adoolaatti atileetota Keenyaa caalee tokkeessoo tahe.
Gama kaaniin ammoo Federeshiinin atileetiksii biyyoolessaa atileetota Marakaash, Morookoo fi Hiyugin Amerikaatti dorgomani moohan badhaase. Gama kaaniin Federeshiiniin Atileetiksi Itoophiyaa naannoon Oromiyaa akka naannootti baranllee atileetiksiin mootee badhaasa argatte. Maratooni km ta Indiitti dorgoman ammo Guye Adoolaa Oromiyaa irraa tokkeesso bahee moohe,akka kilabiitti ammoo kilabii Poolisii Oromiyaatti moohe.
Dorgommii Waancaa Afrikaa bara Kubbaa miilaa keessaa ammo maanajera Kilabii kubbaa miilaa Masrii ya hujii irraa buusanii, Naajeriyalleen ka ufii buusuuf mudduutti jirti. Keeshiin kun durii Naayjeeriaa taphataa eegee kilabi Toogoollee leenjsiee nama ganna 52ti. Farahoos, kilabiin kubbaa miilaa Masrii dorgommii waancaa kubbaa miilaa Afrikaatiif hin dabarre manaajera isii Shawikyii Gaharibiitti balleessaa muranii hujii irraa buusan.
Gaharib nama ganna 55 bara hujii tana itti kennan. Masriin Waancaa Kubbaa Miilaa Afrikaa marroo torba mootee barana hin taaneef. Maaliin ammo tan waliin marroo torbaaf Waancaa Afrikaatiif dabarte. Maanajerii isaanii Seydoyu Keitaatii kilabii Roomaatii taphata. Yoo akka afaan keennaatti yaamne hurjiin gugurraalleen Gaanaa jennuun kilabii Toogoo mootee dabarte. Woma taateefuu dorgommii waancaa Afirkaa bara ta bara dhufuu biyya 16 dabre.
Kudhanii jahaanuu Afrikaa gama Kaabaa, Kibbaa, Jidduti fi Dhiyaatti dabree Afrikaan gamii Bahaa fiigichaan addunyaa dura jirtu kubbaa miilaatiin ammoo addunyaa eegee jirtu baranallee hin dabarre. In a record-breaking edition of the Airtel New Delhi Half-Marathon on Sunday 23 November , an unprecedented nine runners ducked under the one-hour mark led by the great Oromo athlete Guye Adola in a course record of In the deepest race of all-time, Adola powered to a personal best of to defeat Kamworor — who arrived in the Indian capital unbeaten at the half-marathon in — by one second.
It was bit cold in the early morning. Mosinet Geremew finished third in while further back, the world-leader Abraham Cheroben from Kenya placed seventh, albeit in ! I just had to believe in myself and I know I could win back the title. World half-marathon champion Gladys Cherono from and Worknesh Degefa from took second and third in and respectively. Local road running talent Ummu Kiraz of Turkey led from the start and passed 5km in and 10km in By the halfway point, covered in , Kiraz was still in the lead by 29 seconds over what had become a six-women pack,.
However, around 25 kilometres, race favourite Gobena decided to haul in Kiraz and increased her pace, taking the lead two kilometres later and she passed 30km at , 26 seconds faster than Kiraz and Getnet. Abeylegesse was running just behind the chasing pair but Burkovska and Petrova Arkhipova were by now another metres in arrears. Gobena carried on forging ahead and remained unchallenged until the finish line, finishing almost two minutes ahead of anyone else.
Getnet was second in , Burkovska was third with and Petrova Arkhipova took fourth place with Former m world record holder Abeylegessie was fifth in with the early leader Kiraz eventually finishing sixth in Her only disappointment was missing out on the course record of , set in by her compatriot Ashu Kasim Rabo, with race organisers having high hopes that the mark might be improved upon this year. Oromo athlete Gebo Burka came second after finishing the course in The big favorite and defending champion, Leonard Patrick Komon dropped out midway.
He could not keep up the pace. Kuma was part of a leading group with, among other world record holders Leonard Komon and Zersenay Tadese. Eventually he arrived solo at the finish. The Kenyan impressed and narrowly missed the world record she walked the 3rd time ever on the 15 kilometers in 46 minutes and 56 seconds. Injifannoo Atileetota Oromoof! Victory to Oromo athletes! Wearing identical orange vests, Edris and Margaa looked in impressive form but it was always Edris who made the pace while the former world champion Margaa ran comfortably just behind him, copying his tactics from the last three editions in Atapuerca where he had taken narrow sprint finish wins.
In contrast to the men, the 7. Oljirraa, who won bronze medals at both the IAAF World Cross Country Championships and also in the IAAF World Championships 10,m last year, took command some five minutes into the race but there still were a large leading group of seven at halfway. With just under two kilometres remaining, Oljirraa regained command of the race and her change of speed left first Cherono and then Ayalew behind. As Oljirraa carried on to secured her win in style, crossing the line in , Cherono caught Ayalew some metres out to finish eight seconds adrift the victor.
A fading Ayalew could not even keep her third place as she was caught by Asahssah in the closing 30 metres. Hassan 21 was born in Adama, Oromia, and obtained a Dutch passport only last November. Later this week, Hassan was out on the five kilometers. Hassan fitted into the finals its usual tactic. She sat only at the start of the final round in the lead and accelerated, but this time she let herself overtake weather by its biggest competitor, the Swedish Abeba Aregawi. On the final straight, the year-old Arnhem hit mercilessly.
Aregawi had to settle for silver in 4. The bronze medal was for the British Laura Weightman in 4. She began running while undertaking studies to become a nurse. Affiliated with Eindhoven Atletiek, she entered the Eindhoven Half Marathon in and won the race with a time of minutes. She won those races in , as well as the metres at the Leiden Gouden Spike meeting.
Sifan made her breakthrough in the season. She ran an metres best of She gained Dutch citizenship in November and the following month she made her first appearance for her adopted country. At the European Cross Country Championships she won the gold medal in the under category and helped the Dutch team to third in the rankings.
At the beginning of she ran a world leading time of Only one women, Tirunesh Dibaba at the Beijing games in , has achieved the accolade of claiming the m,m double. At the Games in Beijing, Tirunesh Dibaba became the first woman in history to complete the m- 10,m double. Gebrselassie burst on to the scene in the s and progressed to become the pre-eminent marathon runner.
Bekele is aslo arguably the finest cross-country performer the world has ever seen. The two events were introduced at the games Stockholm and many athletes have competed in both over the years with the double achieved on seven occasions, most recently by Kenenisa Bekele at Beijing Four years latter, he contracted appendicitis just six weeks before Tokyo Games but jogged around the hospital to maintain his fitness. This was his first marathon with shoes , and he won in another record time Oromo athlete, a father of 12, Wami Biratu was once among the best long-distance runners in Ethiopia.
Wami had at one point trained Abebe Bikila. In his career, Wami had won 30 gold, 40 silver and 10 bronze medals and won competitions in Egypt, Japan and Czhekoslavakia. Oromo athlete, Mamo Walde Dagaga Mexico Olympic marathon Gold medallist. In June of , he was hired by the Imperial Body Guard. In , he was transferred to the Second Battalion of the Imperial Guard and was sent to Korea as part of the UN peacekeeping mission. Mamo spent 2 years in Korea where he had a distinguished military service.
After returning from Korea, Mamo got married and pursued his passion of athletics quite regularly. Mamo easily qualified to be a member of the Ethiopian Olympics team that participated in the Melbourne Olympics in He had the overall best performance of the national Olympics team by becoming 4-th in meter race. In , Mamo competed in the meters race along with the then favorite Kenyan athletes Kip Keno and Naphtaly Temo.
He maintained the lead until almost the end whence he was overtaken by Naphtaly Temo of Kenya. Mamo won his first Silver Olympic medal. One day before the marathon race, the team trainer Negussie Roba approached Mamo and informed him that the legendary Abebe may not be able to finish the marathon race due to bad health. The next day, October 20, , 72 athletes from 44 countries started the long anticipated race.
Abebe later dropped out of the race at the th Km after leading for the whole duration. Mamo later would muse. Mamo Wolde completed the race victoriously giving his country a third gold medal in Marathon. Mamo became an instant hero just like Abebe. Mamo was 35 when he won the Mexico City Marathon race.
In , Mamo participated in the Munich Olympics at the age of 40 where he won a bronze medal in the meter. I n his athletic career, Mamo had participated in a total of 62 international competitions. Oromo athlete Tolossa Qottuu is currently the assistant coach of the Ethiopian National Athletic team. Tolossa had his own successful career in long-distance running which earned him 18 gold, 3 silver and 12 bronze medals.
His rise to national level was as a result of his near win in the 5K race in which he narrowly lost to Miruts. Tolossa had participated in the Montreal and Moscow Olympics. Oromo athlete Eshetu Tura had won a total of 30 gold, 19 silver and 13 bronze medals in the meters hurdle race.
Eshetu Tura is a man whose career changed by a song. Eshetu not only get inspiration but also a determination to be like Abebe and Mamo. Eshetu joined the armed forces, the breeding-ground of athletics success in Ethiopia. His win in the meters hurdle earned him the national spot-light. Eshetu had won a total of 30 gold, 19 silver and 13 bronze medals in the meters hurdle race. Oromo athletes at Helsinki, 10,m, The scene of this 23 year old Ethiopian young lady winning this race and then draping herself with the national tri-color and doing a lap has placed her in the ranks of the eternal Oromo heroes Abebe Bikila and Mamo Wolde.
Dearatu was born in in the village of Bokoji in the Arsi region of central Oromia as a seventh child in a family of 10 children. Even in elementary school, Derartu excelled in horse riding competitions. That along with a win in meters race in her district convincingly put Derartu in a path of a successful career in Athletics.
In , Derartu represented the region of Arsi and competed in a national meters race where she won a bronze medal. When she was 17, Derartu was hired by the Ethiopian Police Force. In , she competed in her first international race of 6 kilometer cross-country in Norway but was 23rd. In a year time, though, she competed in the same race and won the Gold Medal. Her record-setting win in the 10, meter race in Bulgaria and her win in the same distance race in Cairo, Egypt are worth mentioning.
Darartu is the first black African woman to win a gold medal which she won in the 10,m event at the Barcelona Olympic Games. She was stuck in Athens airport without sleep for 24 hours. She also finished 4th at the Olympic Games where she was nursing an injury. In she won the world cross country title for the second time but did not factor in the 10, metres World Championships.
She won the 10, metres Olympic gold for the second time the only woman to have done this in the short history of the event. This was her third world and Olympic gold medal. She has a total of 6 world and Olympic gold medals. She finished 4th at the World Championships setting her personal best time of Radcliffe failed to finish. She is also remembered for her speed and her As of , Derartu Tulu is still running competitively, while most of her old rivals are retired or retiring.
In her short but on-going career, she has managed to win over 35 gold, 12 silver and 15 bronze medal. In , she ran the Boston Marathon in third place. Roba started running in her elementary school in the Arsi region that was once home also to Derartu Tulu and Haile Gebrselassie, 10,meter Olympic gold-medalists in and respectively. Roba began winning meter and meter races and was chosen to represent her school in regional competitions.
Unlike many rural women runners, Roba says she faced little objection from her Muslim family when she decided to take up the sport. Four years later, she moved to Finfinne became a runner on the prison police force. Who would have thought it, when she had only a PR coming into the Olympic year! Photo: David J. Phillip, www. Injifannoo gammachiisa!!!! He is a former world champion in 10, metres. He then ran a world youth best of He is the winner of the meter final at the World Athletics Championships in the Luzhniki stadium in Moscow.
In September he improved his Ethiopian record to Both were leading the 1st 35 km. Priscah Jeptoo of Kenya is the 1st. Bekele, a three-time Olympic gold medalist on the track, raced alongside world marathon record holder Wilson Kipsang of Kenya for much of the 10 kilometres course. However, the year-old — who indicated he may have an equally glorious career ahead of him in road racing when he won his debut marathon in Paris in April — kicked away in the final metres to finish in a time of 28 minutes 23 seconds.
Bekele, also a four-time 10 metres world champion as well as once the 5 m titleholder, said that he and Kipsang would face many battles over the marathon distance in the years to come. Dibaba, a three-time Olympic champion and five-time world champion on the track, was never troubled and came home over a minute clear of her nearest rivals Gemma Steel of Great Britain and Polline Wanjiku of Kenya.
Bishaan Amboo sana dhugdeeti. The Oromian won her fourth title Monday 26th may well ahead of the rest of the field, finishing in 32 minutes, She also won in , and and was the runner-up in Even with temperatures in the high 60s, and even with a hard early pace from Deena Kastor, Daska felt the pace was too slow.
So she took off down the left side of a long straightaway before the first mile while the rest of the women followed the inside curve of the road. That set the tone: If you want to win, prepare for bold moves and a long grind over the scorching pavement of this rolling, high-altitude course. Baga gammaddan. Mohammed Aman vince gara m maschile. Oromia la nazione atletica. Moses Letoyie of Kenya took bronze in Janet Kisa of Kenya 3rd. See Picture below:. Who are the Oromo People?
Population: The Oromo people are the native inhabitants of Eastern Africa. Their population is estimated at 40 million people, which comprises the single largest ethnic group in East Africa. Where is the Oromo land? The land of the Oromo people is called Oromia. Language: The Oromo people speak Afaan Oromo. They belong to the Cushitic-speaking group of Eastern Africa.
The Oromo language is the 4th most spoken language in the continent of Africa. Since the late 19th century, the Oromo have been under colonization by successive Ethiopian governments. Assisted by European colonial powers with modern weaponry, many Oromo people were killed and during until s. Bloodshed was intense as the Oromo population was reduced from 10 million to 5 million people. Oromo attempts to preserve the Oromo culture and language exist despite open attempts at Oromo ethnic cleansing.
Gadaa System: The Oromo people live by a democratic and egalitarian political system, called the Gadaa system. The Gadaa system consists of Gadaa grades, these grades have individual titles and responsibilities and are also grouped in 8 year periods. Each Gadaa title teaches the young male from birth to develop skills and knowledge about culture, governance, family values and leadership qualities. At the age of 40, Oromo men can be elected as Gadaa officials.
Siinqee Institution: Like Oromo men, Oromo women have an incorporated institution. Siinqee is one of the pillars of Gadaa, an indigenous system of thought and practice which forms the foundations of Oromo society.
She walks, imbued with the majesty of Siinqee, shoulder to shoulder with her bridegroom, who carries a spear.
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What is there? For example, ILO is in Asmara this week. Kids completely out of their element asking for interviews. He may instill holy terror and fear and loathing among Eritreans but outside his borders, he has become a tragic figure.
A governing ideology without a system really? I think we understand the relationship of ideology and a system please. We are not naive to understand the inseparable relationship between the two. My fault: we had a truce, a cease-fire on this. I think we agree at least on that, right Emma?
Except on two issues system and democratic transition we see eye to eye on the Eritrean politics. So I will assume one is down now. Almond and will see if his views will bridge our differences. I will get back to you when I read it. Well written but I am with Amanuel on the ideology vs system. Consider the Means-Motive-Opportunity triangle famously used to solve crimes. I find that framework helps in clarifying a lot of issues. In international especially military affairs, it is the Means that is given most attention.
Iran says its Motive for nuclear power is peaceful, but the world chose to work on controlling its Means, since its Motive can be changed overnight. In other words, the switching cost of Motive is negligible but the switching cost of Means is make-or-break.
I think the organization is the true Means, and not the ideology. I really do not know what the ideology is here. It helps there are claques og misty eyed sycophants like dawit professing his quasi-divinity. I bet you he would sign a Union deal with Ethiopia in an instant if they promised him the top spot.
There is a lot more mischief and fun to be had. Open your eyes, Emma. Kaunda was particularly notorious on that. Solving the issue of poverty is a particularly wonky activity and it is something, that appeals to the wonkish nature of Isaias. He just believes please stop laughing that he has placed Eritrea on a trajectory and if it executes, the issue will be solved.
In , I think, he said that Eritrea will never, ever have food shortages that will require it asking for aid and, to his mind, that is solved. But you guys just refuse to co-operate. So it is your fault:. I read your note twice.. You draw a good picture of a former glamorous leader shining in the milieu of resistance and agitation, now sadly handcuffed by the dark arts of mealy mouthed nickel and diming pursuit of an hambasha in every tukul, and a toilet for every a-hole.
The thing is though, Kaunda survived to be voted out of office and then run again. Many of the strongmen left behind functioning government. Can we not consider the kitchen cabinet a sustainable institutional continuation? Say what you will, they are competent at what they do. If another aspiring dictator wanted a dictatorship-in-a-box, that is a team with the history and connections to have seen and experienced it all.
In the learning business, there is this saying that expertise requires 10, hours of practice. They have many multiples of that individually — and crucially — as a team. I think they are loyal enough to Isayyas that he wont be threatened.. The thing is, I dont know how much younger than Isayyas they are, so we may see a series of short term heads after him.
Remember after Brezhnev died, it looked like every octogenarian on the politburo had to take his seat at the helm before being walked out on his back to his spot on the Kremlin wall. Andropov, Chernenko, etc etc until Gorbachev came up.. This is why I once said that in post-Isaias Eritrea we need to keep all those experienced in statcraft which made my friend Emma lose more hair and curse at me. For example, the Education Minister, Semere Russom, has years of experience in diplomacy but he is not allowed to share his accumulated knowledge on that until his off-switch is turned on by Isaias.
The Foreign Minister, Osman Saleh, has years of experience in education: it must hibernate until Isaias activates it. Etc, etc. People are rotated and they have to learn new skills all over—and they all have steep learning curves. All sorts of rumors will be floated by AP—including that host Ethiopia has blocked Eritrea from participating in Cecafa—before he wakes up from his slumber and says, no, that is not true.
Do you think Eritrea will send a football team to Ethiopia for the Cecafa tournament? I doubt that rumor. Well, it is not a rumor; it was reported by AP yesterday and syndicated all over the world and reported even by DireTube:. Would Ethiopia block it? Do you think Eritrea will send a football team to Ethiopia? I just posted this p. One positive thing from Ethiopian side, the tournament will be held in three venues. A, Awassa, Bahirdar.
Ethiopia did not block anybody. They had a song ready for all cecafa countries completed with duetes singing about all CECAFA countries, and against the law of Geography, they skipped Ethiopia and went down to Kenya and Tanzania..
Too much video blewal.. Hahah…the animosity between the two countries sometimes has no bound. Hoping for better days. Awassa stadium is not ready. Awassa University also has a decent stadium albeit small…. We shall see. Your country hit bottom when they block Eritrean Athletes. That alone should tell you how stupid your leaders are. Hi saay, It is proactive and considerate move by Ethiopia to ask Eritreans to stay put considering their resources are stretched feeding refugees of E.
A character, which he seems to be successful to instill on much of the highland Eritreans. We are powerful. We are this. We are that. And then. They showed them how they are not powerful. They put in their place.. They walked the walk. They did not allow someone to come and demolish their heritage and language with sword. Yeah, me, too, Isaias: why are so many Eritreans in love with this drama queen, Ethiopian version of Patti Labelle? What a waste.. Anyway, that was not my point. I was trying to make a point that your comparison of Isayas and Ethiopian Atses does not hold any water.
They walked their talk, but he is left with his baby hair cut and weird mustach. That is what I am saying…. What a beautifully article. The subject is of great interest to many Eritrean, it touches their life hood and the way it is presented is brilliant. A smooth pleasant logical article. A much needed writing at this time. There was a time not too long ago when one depicts Eritrea with the market as a voluntary means of production and exchange, leading to the creation of material abundance and the thriving of populations.
In city, region after region, hardworking people engage in small agriculture and animal husbandry, industry and trade. It becomes almost monotonous to hear continuously of inhabitants who live by their sweat and make a living by trade and small cottage industry. Towns and thriving commercial and industrial city like Asmara and plenty of fruitful gardens and fields, commerce was the kind of traditional spontaneous order that only a market system can provide. The Country thronged with cities and towns and rich in merchandise, yielding a great revenue.
Merchandise imported by sea, the products of fruit and animal husbandry exported. Are now by gone era and distance memory. Present Eritrea is not normal country than it used to be and not better place to live, at least for the young. Faced with the repressive, corrupt systems in which they are forced to live, with little prospect for change, many people make the only rational choice they have: get the h— out.
You think of IA and the entourage of Eritrean oligarchs will let people make their small business activity, not a chance. Now the country stands for grasping power and ill-gotten money. While the country is on its knees and when opportunities for work become very scarce? Lots of the traditional jobs for our people are disappearing and low wages for remaining workers are pretty stagnant.
Freely slaves, they act at once of their own will and under necessity: they actually do what they wish without being able to disrupt general plans. Good day and good season to citizens of Awate Nation. First thing first: Good job and thanks Berhan Nuredin!! Who is behind this financial game? This is not his first and will not be his last as long as he is allowed to live a life of the living dead and linger.
How does Nsu makes such decisions? To answer this question in an uncomplicated manner for lack of originality on my part , I shall borrow a wisdom from George Eliot in Silas Marner a marvelous little book when she described an old Squire who overlords peasants who live in his land. You the reader can substitute Nsu in place of the old Squire and you will not be far from the truth!
Like many violent and implacable men, he allowed evils to grow under favor of his own heedlessness, till they pressed upon him with exasperating force, and then he turned around with fierce severity and became unrelentingly hard. This was his system with his tenants: he allowed them to get into arrears, neglect their fences, reduce their stock, sell their straw, and otherwise go the wrong way- and then, when he became short of money in consequence of this indulgence, he took the hardest measures and would listen to no appeal.
In a normal society the pending robbery of the people by the ruling clique could potentially create an atmosphere of popular uprising and a great challenge to the regime. But in our case; a society devoid of its youth they are held out of town in trenches; while thousands of them have left the country ,; a society degraded and traumatised by decades of abuse; it is highly unlikely we would witness any meaningful uprising.
And there is nothing so painful than witnessing a defenseless people at the mercy of few criminals. For the great numbers that the justice camp is mobilizing in the streets and in many other facets of activism, the most paralized section is the leaderships of the opposition, because the people are more than ready.
The leaderships are horribly dead beat to say the least. I agree; this is fast becoming one of my all-time favorite threads: Some notes in no particular order including your response to General Nitricc:. When Gemal Abdel Nasser died, everyone was expecting that such an absolutely powerful man would have a lot of money stashed. But he died broke and his family lived in a modest house. To some powerful people, money is boring; political power is all. I think Isaias fits that mold. If you ever watched House of Cards, Frank Underwood has contempt for people who choose money over political power:.
I think all the clever hustlers are right now stocking up on cash-substitutes and cash-equivalents. Calling cards, for example. Or electronics. These are just the clever hustlers. The super-clever saw this coming and converted their Nakfa to hard currency or its equivalent months ago.
Oh, Berhan! For large amounts, you go to the bank and you declare like a person flying to a foreign land how much cash you are bringing in on those long and narrow declaration forms, and then you turn in the form and you leave the plane, I mean the bank. Or, whatever is going to work as a bank. You know, this, Berhan: some businesses live on a float—the number of days between the time you write the check and the day it clears.
Please stop being AdHarHari. The Negadai will be responsible for giving the customer receipts in triplicate, thereby allowing the State to collect what most African states lose: income tax. Where is Dawit: Eritrea is 1!. The bank will be open — and to The three hour break in between is not just for siesta and happy hour but for counting currency. This will be, like the Eritrean referendum, one of those things that goes off without a hitch: it is what the PFDJ is born to do:.
Thanks for asking about me. Well dawit is busy counting his nakfa ready to exchange on Nov. Now you and others here at AT, making the exchange process too complicated. I think it is going to be very simple. If people have more than 5 million to exchange, they are required to put them in a box, separated by denomination, 1,5, 10…s.
Then all is needed for the bank to weigh the box and record the weight subtract the weight of the box and multiply by the weight of 1 currency, Bingo! If the weight exceed the normal weight, then you know it must be dirty money attacked by mold growing over it adding to its weight where ever it was hidden, may be across the border to the south, which lead to an investigation. And if the weight is below the normal weight for the box, that currency have lost weight, faded its color reducing its normal weight.
That currency might may be coming from across the border north and west of the country, where they used Nile water to do the super cleaning process. So you see cousin, every thing is going to be fine in the 1 country in Africa , converting its currency smoothly within six weeks. On January 1st. Hi Cousin daiwt: Mahmud have earned the cousisship too, have you noticed:- Yes, I agree with your simplistic way of explaining the currency exchange Also can you enlighten us if the 5 million us smeared with some blood did you guys have enough detergent to clean it?
Sorry cousin I only know how to exchange clean patriotic currency old Nakfa with a new Patriot Nakfa. If you have us currency smeared with blood, you have to contact the Fed, the institution authorized to exchange us currency. What do you mean waiting in line. Has the Treasury deputized US embassies as banks to allow the Diaspora to exchange currency that was stuck in their zipper leather jackets too? This orderly process you are describing sounds very familiar: on a gov-specific date, between specific times, you go to a gov-specified place.
You leave something of value, which is then validated by gov-appointed officials transparently and then you get something of equal value back. All adults are eligible for this excercise. If anything, it was a show of immoral, coward and ultimate dishonor. They did what they had to do. They ask for the white man to solve their problem. They stood up head on. I believe none of that; however, PIA will look the other way while the act of corruption is committed.
PIA will let you to be corrupt and embezzle right and left, then, then try to disobey or challenge his supremacy; then he will get you for good. It worked for a while but this time around, it got out of hand. PIA has no choice but to role the dice and see what happens. I am sure there will be serious fallouts to follow.
In any case, PIA is the creator of this situation. If it makes sense he is not corrupted but a corrupter. Hi Nitricc I sent the shout out on the things we agreed. I will leave our disagreement for the next topic. However, when the bank account of PIA is finally found, I guarantee you, it will not be in any fo Eritrean banks…the commercial or the housing. It will be in Zurich. I hope he puts in his will.
There is no more corruption than killing people, no more corruption than disappearing people for years. Corruption is simply using the power, power gained legitimately or illegitimately like that IA to do something that inflicts suffering to others: economic, emotional or whatever. Nitricc split his hairs to call IA corrupter, ok, lets play his new found semantics, but if you use power to corrupt others is corruption.
You know what happened to the UoA students in Sometimes when you bring examples you bring it just for the sake of nothing. One who allows corruption as per your statement , he is a corrupted by the mare facts he likes to live as a leader in a corrupt environment. A simple logic. Hi Aman —H real quick; Socrates was accused and sentenced to death for corrupting the youth; was he corrupted?
There is a fine line difference between the two; the corrupt and the corrupter. Think about it. I will be back for the rest of you. Hi, Nitricc, I tell you little i know. Eritrea GOv has its own Oligarchy working its dirty work. These people are the go between, in short leash, where the corrupted and Generals stash their money.
They are up in arms in this and had their money already deposited before it started. IA knowingly looking away to please his Generals. He is all about staying in power by controlling the flow of money. The tiny reformer. Do not get disappointed because of your friend Nitricc. He is the lost cult worshiper. Thee truth is Nitricc has many qualities that he possess compared to yours. Hi tes, i am working on it to be like Nitricc. Selam SS, If I left you with the impression that the winner in this debacle are the hoarders, then that was not my intention.
However, I agree that changing currency in itself will not address the long term fundamental monetary and economic policies this government has imposed on the Eritrean people, and nor will it it ever address the current crises. At this moment, the one thing we have is time, and it will tell the direction this country will be traveling, yet again. And if they claim it was remittance from family members abroad then they will be asked to provide a prove that the hard currency was exchanged in eritrean banks -those nouveau riche…well they better make their naqfa rain in de clubs in three coming six weeks because it will be rendered valueless soon..
An excellent and an insightful article. Your article discusses the problem in simple and relative simplicity of language without being carried away by wild assumptions and conspiracy theories. You have made the forum regain its sanity. I think the government has created the situation and now the situation has gone out of control into creating its own sustaining system which does not respond to PFDJ control-freak tools and attitudes.
If it is a matter of controlling inflation and stabilizing the market the government can take certain conservative measures, again this becomes fruitful assuming citizens have trust in the system. But at times governments intervene.
The reason this news becomes contentious is because of the nature of the government. There is no trust in the government, therefore, all the interventions mentioned above have failed. People who bought the first bonds to mitigate war-caused offsets have stories to tell us about the whereabouts of their bonds.
The government tried to lure people into saving, it seems it did not work. The whole economy is abnormal and abnormal situation people create their own abnormal channels since they are rational. The government tried to control it through its culture of running parallels, its has its Ted Sea…Housing Bank, Foreign Exchange branches where most of the Hawalla you and me send ends up. People are rational, and with time, they upend the ante reaching a stage where the ruling clique feels what it has thought controllable might have reached a point where its own survival is challenged.
Therefore, the usual interventions government make to control the fiscal situation and market are not going to work because there is no trust in the system; there is no effective financial institutions that could oversee those typical measures; and there is an economy that the government controls anyway.
When governments do those traditional interventions they know approximately exactly the size and activities of their economy. At this time taking either or all of the above traditional measures would amount to lobbying dumb missiles into unidentified targets.
Therefore, it is time for showdown, as you aptly put it, the secrecy of the matter and the extremely narrow window given tell us this measure has been taken as an attempt of erasing everything and starting from a clean slate. The problem is: since the cause roots such as rampant corruption and the culture of black market and black dealings, a financial sector that has purposely been reduced to a political figured Hagos Kisha are not going to be able to safe guard the fresh start do miracles.
I have made the point that people are rational beings—something taught in all Econ classes. But we need to marry economics with psychology because human beings are complex. I can divide up the money anyway I want. All that complexity that makes you human—dignity, fair play, anger, pride—will kick in and you will tell me to go fly a kite.
This is what I am hoping the Isaias government will know about human psychology before it makes rash decisions. You also tried in your forum comments and your articles that people are rational, and they will look for the best choice available even in deciding with whom to side in times of crisis.
Economists are, of course, try to study human behavior as robots, but as you said, human beings are more complex than the models economists study, and you are right with your example. Normally, people opt for maximum gain, but at times, things get complex, and our human nuances such as pride, dignity…all take the from seat.
Therefore, although we are expected to think rationally strictly in its economic sense other human behaviors affect us greatly. Another concern is what if the Bank insists on transactions via checks and other traditional bank tools without preparing and making a thorough effects on the whole people. Say, if they insist on this, the poor will be poorer, and the marginalized will be more marginalized.
Because: 1. There are no wide spread of bank service imagine you will have to travel to Nakfa from SalAa, or Emahmimet, Arareb, Arag for a small service. The cost of that trip could be bigger than the benefit you get, there for you choose not to do it and hence get marginalized. What is the literacy rate? What are the languages that will be used? Are we going to have bankers who attend to the needs of Arabic and Tigrigna and some other Languages.
What are going the language people communicate with through the checks? But there will not be a show down. One cannot have a show down with himself. The connected, the corrupt and that includes top echelons of PFDJ will launder their dirty money, but some will be scapegoated and purged, the sacrificial lambs, the towels to cleanse the dirty hand.
As you said the people do not trust the system to use it to trade legally and as you know trade with each other and with the outside world is important, Sal and you can correct me but the American, Paul Krugrman won a noble prize for his work on trade. But you need a sound banking and monetary system that is not influenced by the politics.
Andebrhan said that his showdown with IA was about the independence of banking system when he tried to divorce it from PFDJ as the governor of the bank. I remember in you could exchange the USD in the commercial bank for birr but if you go to the PFDJ banking systems,loated just behind the bank you would get birr, 20 birr less than the black market, that is the economy that has taken over the nation and like a dandelion in your garden needs to be weeded out.
Selam cousin You are forgetting that showdown does not always occur between good and evil, sometimes evil forces do a showdown among themselves too. Make no mistake, it appears to be a political measure. If it was an economic one, they should have done it long time before things get out of hands. Semere, This morning a funny friend called and told me: much ado about nothing, the old thrives are retiring and they train new thrives.
What do you want them to do, work until they die? So your friend maybe right. Dear Mahmud, Forgive me for not responding in a timely fashion. Never a day Isayas has commanded the support of the people. If Isayas is shaking off the generals, who is to protect him?
Can they, therefore, stand up to the revolting generals? After all, Isayas has a kind of tendency to associate with those who cannot live without breaking laws, be it locally or internationally. Thank you Berhan for the nice article, After watching the interview of the banker, my worries goes to the public rather than the corrupt government generals and officials. One important issue that need to be highlighted is that most Eritrean Muslim businessmen, never use banks for religious reason, they prefer to lock their large-cash in their storage rooms.
They will be subject of more looting by regime. Completely off-topic, but I really like your name. As you were. If there was any positive contribution to Guad Mengisu to Ethiopian society, it is the dismantling of Ethiopian feudal system. I am sure history will remember him for that.
Speaking of naming could you do some thing to make your name easy to write in English. Every time I tried to write your the way you spell it I get it wrong because the automatic spell check of the word processing mechanism.
So feudalism was a historical abstraction for me, not withstanding the occasional qeNazmach or balambaras in the family tree who would come to visit. I am not defending Feudalism. And I am not sure guad Mengistu could take credit for it. With the in-built class hatred he carried for them and the fact that he was a soldier, his solution would have been physical liquidation like Stalin did to the Kulaks.
Those who really broke that system were the ones responsible for the land proclamation law and its implementation. To me that was the real revolution. The rest of it was left-wing anarchist stupidity. Perhaps the Derg as a whole could be credited with embracing something so revolutionary as a cause.
Now that I am older and have read up on a few coups in the world, the default end result of coups is the strengthening of conservative political orders even if personalities change. By all accounts most of the Derg were practically nothing more than a committee on grievances. Somehow, this group morphed into something that accomplished a truly revolutionary work. Once the urban and rural land proclamations were done, to my mind the Derg ceased being a revolutionary force and reverted to what one would expect from a group of military people — analyzing and resolving issues through the gun as opposed through politics.
Perhaps that is the legacy of Mengistu. Now why would I change my name? It is two syllables — imagine if I used the rest of them. You just have to teach your spellcheck to know me well enough. But I thank you for taking the time to correct it. It is sad when a country uses children to beg money from donors.
But, Guad, why are you worried about the children of Eritrea at a time when millions of Ethiopians children die because of starvation right now. Why do you want to talk about Eritrean problem? As the video showed this is only the beginning. I am sure you have read my warning what was coming unless Ethiopia changed its policy wars in Eritrea, unfortunately that terrible time is fast approaching and it is too late for Brtukan Ali and her child Abdu Mohamed.
The reporter said two babies every day in one village. GuadAmde; Isaias biyaguara, bishelil, bifoker beAgeru yemigermegne Guad selesu zina mekebateru, Birtukan eyrabat woha sitemat, sitmot behagerua, ayasaznehim wey, le-tiyt shemata silemin mengstua, Ye Ertran mengist behail blo lemegelbet Aygermim yeEthiopia hizb berhab alenga silat dawit. The owners are exactly as described by Berhan. Young and connected. Thanks for insightful article. When the announcement about the Nakfa currency was made, we had opened the file in which we put all tidbits of related information; we are going to publish a report.
Then we missed our planned date and immediately the forum was buzzing with mind-boggling comments. We were not able to come up with a more insightful report than the rich comments that were already here.
We shelved our report to work on it more and provide a content with some added value in it. I am sure my colleagues agree, but I believe that was our feeling. I am awe-stricken by the quality of the content provided by the awate forum commentators and writers. This would have been more exciting and worthy of celebrating in a different occasion—if not for the sad and worrisome incident that warranted such a discussion. Merhaba Ustaz Saleh, I want to take this opportunity to say thank you for everything you do, and for giving me this opportunity, this forum to share my two cents.
Hello everyone! Let me just say thank you first to all of you, for taking the time to read the article and give your opinion about it. I fill like listing the names of those who touched me deeply, with their gracious remarks, and kind words, particularly persons such as Beyan Negash, kokob Selam, Amanuel Hidrat, Farnello and Semere…etc.
You are my inspirations and the reason why I wrote the piece. Having said that, I want to send a special shout out to Nirticc, for finding at least a single point of agreement with what I wrote in the piece. He being Nirticc, however immediately fell back to the old Nirticc. There is still some hope. And if I did, It is because he is still washing off the smell of the rotten fish he is been praising.
Where are you Dawit? Asmara is Rose. I despise the current occupant of the office in Asmara, but I love Asmara. Hi Berhan Your response is as fast as a light. Finally, your article is top notch. Very informative. The author of the currently raging corruption and lawlessness in the country is isaias afewerki, of which, among many others, his willful abolition of the Constitution and Congress of the country bear testimony.
The usual practice of isaias afewerki is to sugarcoat whatever poison he wants to push down the throat of the eritrean people. And this malicious part of his practice is what the article seems to miss. It is over fifteen years since he decimated any semblance of institutional practice in the country. This very act introduced into the country apartheid system, where one group are over the other.
But we must not view this kind of apartheid to be identical with that of South Africa. It is more sophisticated. For example, one person from the degraded people can be brought to be a minister but not to work but only to appear , and sometimes , to be observed closely.
The Black Market operatives and human traffickers were all created by isaias afewerki. The plan was to impoversih the people of Eritrea at home and abroad. Remember, the exchange rate in the Black Market is at least one hundred fifty times the normal and the price of local commodties escalates to that level. Consequently, the local consumers either live on his handouts, his coupens, or escape to neighbouring countries in search of food.
For the people to leave the country is his heart felt desire, so he can realize his evil dream easily but even as they escape, he has laid traps for them, the human traffickers. Once the human traffickers caught them, either their relatives in diaspora pay tens of thousands of dollars for their release, or they pay with their body organs.
Either way isaias afewerki bolsters his secret foreign account with blood money. If he is the author and beneficiary of the Black Market and Human Trafficking, of course, no doubt he is, it is paradoxical to say that he is introducing new Naqfa to bankrupt himself. His tsrgets are the local people, who, concerned with uncertain future, , withdrew their money from his bank and hidiing them in rat-holes.
No doubt that he took this as a rebellion and betrayal and he is punishing them for that. Very insightful comment, a small correction though. Hi Tewelde; Berhan gave you very convincing and very detailed account and all you can do to encounter his article is by absolutely saying nothing but garbage.
If not, tell me which ethnic is superior to the other ethnic. Say it! What are your evidence for this magnitude of accusation? Please present your evidence so we can judge for our selves. They are not! If anything it is good for the local people. Live with it. It appears that the two crocodiles have opted for co-existence instead of a showdown, Berhan.
It boils down to: you get to keep your criminally-earned money; we get to keep our missing Nakfa and 50 Nakfa and look like we are doing something to foil something. And here is the escape clause as described by shabait. All government Ministries and institutions, the Army, and PFDJ bodies will carry out redemption functions on behalf of the Banks for their respective members.
Administrative Regions are also empowered to carry out these functions to their members and to rural residents where there is no Bank presence. All these redemptions will be for cash amounts that do not exceed 20, Nakfa. Yeah, over here! Ok, could you do me a favor and guard the hen house? A mafia gang that has perfected crime for 15 years will definitely use this loophole—getting a license to be a banker—to create all sorts of ghost members of the army, the ministries to bypass the 20, nakfa limit.
A corrupt group who learned Crime by cashing the paycheck of their long-departed dead, deserted soldiers will certainly have the creativity to find a way to launder its money. I think this is what happens when militarism has no end, irrespective of the place. There were Derg generals who were running hot businesses in Addis during a socialist era mind you , and there were common soldiery described to me as walking around in the front with their butt showing due to having worn out the seats of the pants.
Wars should be short sharp things that people and societies make a special and unusual effort to get through. A long war breeds a special kind of person, one who has figured out how to thrive in the awful misery that is war. And having learned how to thrive, it is in his interest that a system he has learned to maximize to his benefit should proceed as long as possible.
In the west we know this syndrome of course as the Military-Industrial Complex. The average patriot may think it is meaningful, but the guys running the rackets know otherwise. But they need the patriot to keep singing that tune, marked with the jingle of a cash register to set the rhythm. What you have highlighted may be the bait, if the government can manage to make the generals to feel safe, then they can implement this change with ease.
All they need to control at this stage is the issue of the new currency……. Then, you sent me payroll for 12, soliders, and I count 10,, and I cash the checks of 2, This goes on to the point that I have 2, soldiers and you send me a check for 12, and I cash the check of 10, It happens incrementally, slowly. You validate my decision. Then, you know, words no longer matter. They have no meaning. Nothing matters. All I know is there is a good life, and a tough life.
I spent a lifetime having a tough life and I sure as hell want to know what a good life looks like. There is life, it can be good, it can be bad, and I prefer the good because it fulfills all my perverted fantasies. Otherwise if that was the case all PFDJ has to do is just open a new bank account to these people and the money returns to back to circulation- and everyone will be happy.
But what PFDJ is counting on however, in this draconian decree, that bring your money withing the next two weeks, and we will contact to you later on is really stupid. This will not fly at all. Haile TG, has a good joke bellow that makes more sense and a,good sense of humor than this serious matter of millions. However The new law assumes that, in the event these people did not bring and register their monies by the deadline, then they will lose the value of their currency and that in itself is punishment enough.
Believe it or not, I am agreeing with you. You see, you say that there is a conflict between those who have political power and financial power. It so happens that those with the financial power also have gunpower. So all we have to look at is precedent:. Let me take you back to It was a turf war. There was an assassination attempt on Simon Gebredengel.
Eri-TV told our friend Dawit that there would a full investigation which would be disclosed he is still waiting: Samson was chased to a monastery where there was a shoot-out and he was killed. He never was. That is what I meant when I said the stand-off will remain. With the rest—the very connected—it will be business as usual because the delicate scratch-my-back-I-will-scratch-yours game will be maintained.
I think you laid out the realistic scenario of an immediate post-Isayyas era. There will likely be a figurehead to front the system of those economically benefiting from the current arrangement. The system is too lucrative to just stop or change.
Isayyas will be made into a Saint, and there will be calls to continue his legacy, while the various elements will try to overpower each other. That is like Russia of the 90s — a formerly controlled economy that devolved into an open oligarchy. Until another strongman emerges to stabilize the system. Well, actually, I respectfully disagree. Let me push on that string a little bit more then. Go from digital to analog if you will. The big question is not whether Isayyas is dead or alive, but the actual quality of his control now.
Has that diminished? Has it been diminishing? How much is he in control if he has been relying on the same team for so long, when robust dictatorship is characterized by frequent changes? IF I am right, at this point he is more reliant on those around him than vice versa.
Which suggests they have worked out a modus vivendi among themselves. In Eritrea, as in most of Africa, power is derived from traditional configurations or revolutionary ethos. Isaias and partners destroyed the traditional authority church, state, customs. Well, no, those around him are completely dependent on him because of the nature of the relationship. I had this example given to me by one of my fave people. But the reality of it is because I spent my formative years terrified of him, to this day, when I am smoking and I see him, I put out the cigarette.
I do not make eye contact with him. My body language says that he is superior and I am inferior. They live in holy terror that they are one phone call away from disappearance and jail. Proof, you ask. A person who had been frozen, humiliated for over a decade, will readily accept any assignment by Isaias Afwerki if he, on a whim, chooses to activate him.
At any rate, the man has always worked from a position where he is able to handpick those close to him. They must be, as SAAY put it, timid and terrorized to look up to him. They must know the rule: they can retain their position as long as they make loyalty to him number one of their duties. Therefore, in short, the answer to your question is: There is no indication that IA has lost any level of control. There is one video from Washington, DC, It is famous for something else—how Isaias and his followers terrorized this Muslim female questioner: it has been covered, analyzed, inspected, synthesized ad nauseum.
But that completely overshadows something else. And, by saying this, I am hoping I am not putting a jinx on these poor functionaries. I understand where Saay is coming from. What I am challenging is the last phrase you stated.. He may be alive, and still have some competence in him, but is it unreasonable to assume that these mental abilities are not what they were?
He is human after all. HaileSellasie had formidable skills. I heard a story where he supposedly survived an attempted drowning by Lij Eyassu when he was a child. And yet, he managed to outfox all his powerful rivals and survive into the s as sole Negus AND NeguseNegest I am only adding this to note that he had inherited a system of quasi monarchic federalism, but he ended all the other Neguses But by the time of the revolution he was or close to being senile.
And that for the most part is a function of the time they have spent together. How long have the two Yemanes been in their posts? The generals? Hagos Kisha? I would imagine their immediate staff below them have been more or less stable too. It is more likely Isayyas is dependent on them than the other way round. Is he going to replace them and bring someone new?
That by itself would be very destructive. I accept of course mine is simply conjecture on my part.. Saay would have a heck of a lot more detail on the internal workings of the regime that would not be so obvious to those of us on the outside. Still, my main point was that, even if we accept they are bound by fear to him, they are also bound to each other with the collective experiences they have AND the more or less competent execution of whatever was willed as PFDJ policy.
The big glue is, if this collective experience is being rewarded by lucrative financial niceties. All indications are that there is a system underneath this team that has managed to be extremely wealthy, and I bet they will choose to laissez les bon temps roulet let the good times roll as they say. Sal toip ld us the difference between how PFDJ doles power and how the rest of dictatorship Africa does it.
In the first unfettered loyalty is required in the later, tribal balance and family connections are considered and that is why it was impossible to see coup attempts in Eritrea much less conducting successful coups in the last 25 years even when PFDJ pushed with crimes to the highest level.
And to tighten the grip there is regular purging and recruiting new ambitions loyal people, these have expiry date, they will toil in service of the dictator until their expiry date comes and so the cycle continues. This was his MO since the beginning of time, in when the Menkae emerged to democratize his budding despotism, he went to the Moslems, the Semhars and told them these highlanders are there to destroy you and since he went to school with some of them in China they mistook him as a reformer and reformer and they Moslems in EPLF sided with hm and together murdered the Menkae, now yester alliace are one by one purged, no one is in the inner circle of they are alive.
We are talking at different time and space. Take the following facts into accounts: a the composition of the current leadership and that of are different. Almost all his colleagues in the leadership in the are gone.
The personal financial desire was not part of the power equations during the ghedli era. Your idea is very insightful, but raises more questions at the same time. It is true that there is the mafia entity and government entity in Eritrea. It is also true that there are those belonging to both groups. Now, it is true that the mafia has large quantities of the currency and the government wants to use these currency to carry out its day to day running of the country. It is also true that the mafia wishes to legitimize its dealing by taking over the bank and the government will be in trouble to allow that.
But that would be a one off and not the best of deals for the mafia. The mafia needs to move large amounts of cash constantly. On top of that the mafia needs to settle payment for containers after containers of contraband merchandise, large volumes of fuel for street distribution, payments for go betweens, and the rest on a regular bases including today when it has to pay out half a million.
All the above are critical, time sensitive schedules for the mafia. In which case, the mafia will only be bailing out the government for this one time and legitimizing its old money but not new or future money. The Cosa Nostra, is extremely well-connected. It saw this coming 16 weeks ago and dumped all its Nakfa and is holding shiny currencies.
It brought the black market to a halt. Refer to your contacts:. The Cosa Nostra navigates between the government and the Little Mafia. That would be Berhans Weekend Biking Warriors. And this time next year, the government will be in the same pickle. Sometimes all you can hope for is to slow down and not stop the Folo Economy:. Thank you Berhan for the insight to this show down. I believe in all those examples given but it will just be business as usual when dust settles down few people will be arrested and few will use their connection to find a way to exchange the Nacfa, where the government will have the ability to say it has accounted.
For example if the said limit is 20,, I think those criminals will be able to recruit hundreds of thousands people who are willing to take the 20K to the bank, get it exchanged and take the cut. So I think it will be business as usual…just like what happened when they changed the passport, just like what is happening when they changed the ID card…etc..
What I would like to bring to the attention of AT forum members is…. Basically the series is about, how a mathematician and psychologist developed a theory called psychohistory, where he will be able to predict the future. I sense that a lot of us, here AT are predicating the collapse of the system. I think AT University is probably one of the best place where such Encyclopedia with our in house phycohistorian, as in Saay.
One thing he told me about that I have never put much attention to was, how life was when the first government of Eritrea was sworn in. He said, it feels really sad, when people talk about the first Eritrean government established in but they never mention the first government of Eritrean in I think we have been looking so hard to find an alternative, a compromise, a solution to our predicament, some to Ethiopia, some to the west, some to the Arabs, some to our religion, some to our culture, some to our language etc..
Dear Berhe, Maybe nothing worth discussing may result after all is said and done. The only difference in this case is that the enablers of this mechanism that is called PFDJ is literally at each others throat. Greed for power supersedes patriotism, camaraderie, and country. I believe however; Greed for money supersedes greed itself. That is an excellent read from start to finish. Thank you. It would be a disservice to your otherwise meticulous analysis to add anything.
Hence, let me tell you a funny thing that was said by a friend of mine while we were discussing the issue. I was telling him that if one has over 5 million Nakfa to convert, it will need to be left at the bank until after the six week period and the bank will then contact them to arrange counting and exchange date. My friend broke out in laughter.
I was confused and asked if I said something funny. By the way this withdrawal of 20, nakfa, is not new. As we speak, that is what people with legitimate bank account are allowed to withdraw from their bank…, and guess what only ONCE a week. If you are a business person, you too have an incentive to hoard money…but at least your money gets to go back into the circulation on the need basis based on your business needs… what is left out of the loop is the bank.
Whatever PFDJ is trying to solve with this currency change is not about curbing crime. The criminals, the bikers, the human traffickers and every illegal act in the county has been blessed by PFDJ and they are the beneficiaries. This is a renewal process, to hire new blood for the crime scenes of PFDJ. So many criminal will be purged, they know too much so they will be purged.
Private Citizens who hoarded cash and were dealing in the black market will lose money but many smart ones have already converted their money to USD through the black market and if some still own millions of NaKfa under their mattress, they will be apprehensive to take it to the bank for fear of imprisonment.
The illegal activity of PFDJ like anything it does is not new, it is not something that sprung in Asmara after independence. They have continued that tradition after independence by acting like a placement agency to the Middle East. If they succeed in the transition of the conversation, they will strengthen their crime network beyond the human and organ trafficking. Quit frankly it is the opposite. When he warn the corrupted people and action is on the way; the crowd went roaring in agreement with PIA; that led me to believe that there might be a problem and the people are sick of it.
In anyway you cut it; it is very bold and dangerous move by PIA. Hi Teddy, Where are you? Are you smelling the rotten fish? Along with official aid donors, such as USAID and the World Bank, the foundation works together with local, generally autocratic, governments on these technical solutions.
The technical solutions have been missing for so long in Ethiopia and other poor countries because autocrats are more motivated to stay in power than to fix the problems of poverty. Autocracy itself perpetuates poverty. Meles violently suppressed demonstrations after rigged elections in Rulers only reliably become benevolent when citizens can force them to be so — when citizens exert their democratic rights.
Our own history in the U. Chris Christie get away with a traffic jam on a bridge. Such democratic rights make technical fixes happen, and produce a far better long-run record on reducing poverty , disease and hunger than autocracies. We saw this first in the now-rich countries, which are often unfairly excluded from the evidence base. Some developing countries such as Botswana had high economic growth through big increases in democratic rights after independence.
Worldwide, the impressive number of developing countries that have shifted to democracy includes successes such as Brazil, Chile, Ghana, South Korea and Taiwan, as well as former Soviet Bloc countries such as the Czech Republic, Poland and Slovenia. Redirect aid to democrats. This is while police forces are repeatedly accused by Human Rights Watch of serious human rights abuses. Social cohesion, political freedom and environmental protection carry little importance in the comforting world of impressive growth statistics.
Rebuilding Libya after the civil war has been a blessing for its GDP. But does that mean that Libya is on an enviable growth path? When there is only one brick left in a country devastated by war or other disasters, then just making another brick means doubling the economy percent growth. Another problem is the reliability of GDP statistics in Africa. The report says the firms may be guilty of colluding in oppression. In different parts of the world, the rapid growth of information and communications technology has provided new opportunities for individuals to communicate in a manner and at a pace like never before, increasing the space for political discourse and facilitating access to information.
However, many Ethiopians have not been able to enjoy these opportunities. Instead, information and. Internet has been available to mobile phone subscribers since There is no other service provider available in Ethiopia. Also known as spyware or malware, such software can allow a government to capture passwords and other text typed into the device , copy or delete files, and even turn on the microphone or camera of the device to eavesdrop.
Such software is often unwittingly downloaded when an individual opens a malicious link or file disguised as a legitimate item of interest to the target. In Zambia, Angola and Mozambique, the press, civil society organisations and the opposition are under threat for demanding that the proceeds from raw material exports and billion dollar multinational corporate investments should benefit everyone. No-one can predict the future, but what can be said with certainty is that the possibility of a sustainable long-term and fair development that is currently at hand in Africa is being put at risk.
The frustration that is fuelled among populations that are hungry and feel ignored by their rulers will bring about increasingly strident and potentially violent protest. In the near future, this will change the political climate, not least in urban areas. But the situation is not hopeless, on the contrary. Civil society is growing stronger in many places in Africa. The internet makes it possible for people to access and disseminate information in an unprecedented way.
Today, a worker in a Chinese-owned factory in Ethiopia earns one-tenth of the wage of an employee in China. There are no excuses for letting African populations and their environment once again pay for the global demand for its raw materials and cheap consumer goods. A reaction to austerity measures in Greece?
Or a follow-up to the Arab Spring? The widening gap between rich and poor is as troubling in Africa as in the rest of the world. In fact, many Africans believe that inequalities are becoming more marked: A tiny minority is getting richer while the lines of poor people grow out the door. The largest movement ever in Africa of people from rural to urban areas is now taking place.
Soon, this will change the political climate, not least in urban areas. I see newly constructed, subsidised single-family homes accessible for low-income families. I drive on good roads and meet many tourists, although this is off-season. I hear about a growing mining sector, new discoveries of natural gas and oil deposits.
I read about irregularities committed by people in power, in a reasonably free press whose editors are not thrown into jail. There is free primary level schooling and almost free health care. Most people I talk to are optimistic. A better future for a majority of Namibians is being envisaged. But Namibia is an exception. Some examples: authoritarian regimes, as in Ethiopia and Rwanda, are consolidating their positions.
That is of course good news for the continent. Perhaps the best, from a macroeconomic viewpoint, since the s, when many of the former colonies became independent. This growth is mainly driven by the raw material needs of China, India and Brazil. Meanwhile, the largest movement ever in Africa of people from rural to urban areas is now taking place.
But, in contrast with China, where the migrants from the rural areas get employment in the manufacturing industry, the urban migrants in Africa end up in the growing slums of the big cities. In a few places, notably in Ethiopia, manufacturing is beginning to take off. But the wages in the Chinese-owned factories are even lower than in China, while the corporations pay minimal taxes to the Ethiopian state.
However, there is little doubt that many parts of the continent were torn apart by various wars, during that era. Many of the pre-colonial wars revolved around state formation, empire building, slave raids, and control over resources and trade routs. The slave raiding and looting empires and kingdoms, including those of the 19th century, left behind complex scars in inter-identity relations.
It is beyond the scope of this paper to discuss in detail the nature of pre-colonial empires in Africa. The examples of the Abyssinian Empire and the Mahdiyya state in Sudan provide a glimpse of the impacts of pre-colonial empires on the prevailing problems in inter-identity relations.
The Abyssinian Empire, for example, is credited for creating the modern Ethiopian state during the second half of the 19th century and defending it from European colonialism. However, it also left behind a deeply divided country where the populations in the newly incorporated southern parts of the country were ravaged by slave raids and lootings and, in many cases, reduced into landless tenants, who tilled the land for northern landlords Pankhurst, The Empire also established a hierarchy of cultures where the non-Abyssinian cultures in the newly incorporated territories were placed in a subordinate position.
There are claims, for instance, that it was not permissible to publish, preach, teach or broadcast in Oromiya [Afaan Oromo] language of the Oromo people in Ethiopia until the end of the reign of Emperor Haile Selassie Baxter, , Click to access 3-diversity-management. A number of African governments accused of human rights abuses have turned to public relations companies to salvage the image of their countries. In many cases across Africa, it often means whitewashing the human rights violations of despotic regimes with fluff journalism and, just as easily, serving as personal PR agents for rulers and their corrupt family members.
But they also help governments drown out criticism, often branding dissidents, democratic opponents and critics as criminals, terrorists or extremists. Today, with the preponderance of social media, anyone with an opinion, a smart phone and a Facebook account can present their views to an audience potentially as large as any major political campaign can attract. This has raised citizen journalism to a level of influence unknown previously. Yet, this communication revolution has also resulted in despotic governments smearing not just human rights advocates, but individuals with blogs as well as Twitter, YouTube and Facebook accounts.
This undermines the power and integrity of social media. It is no surprise that ruthless governments that deny their citizens basic freedoms would wish to whitewash their reputations. But PR professionals who spin for them should be exposed as amoral. If a website or magazine commends the government, how is an average citizen to know for certain if the information is accurate or true? There are likely many more that continue to do this work under the cover of corporate secrecy.
Only after an international uproar were the policemen directly responsible for the killing brought to justice. Meanwhile, political opponents routinely disappear, journalists are arrested for criticising the government and any comprehensive human rights report contains appalling anecdotes and painful analysis about a country with little judicial independence and respect for the rule of law.
Mr Ayittey — a former political prisoner from Ghana — pulls us a lot closer to the truth. With the end of that war, and the creation of the United Nations, the international community vowed never again to allow atrocities like those of that conflict happen again. World leaders decided to complement the UN Charter with a road map to guarantee the rights of every individual everywhere.
The report placed Ethiopia st in ICT development, out of countries, and nd out countries in the price of fixed broadband connection. After a decade, in , the internet penetration rate in Ethiopia was a mere 1. Neighboring Kenya, however, reached a 41 percent penetration rate, with The second How Africa Tweets study dives deeper into Twitter use on the continent, looking at which cities are the most active, what languages are being used the most and what issues are driving the conversation online.
Johannesburg is the most active city in Africa, with , geo-located tweets, followed by Ekurhuleni , and Cairo , Durban , and Alexandria , make up the remainder of the top five most active cities Nairobi is the most active city in East Africa and the sixth most active on the continent, with , geo-located tweets Accra is the most active city in West Africa and the eight most active on the continent, with 78, geo-located tweets English, French and Arabic are the most common languages on Twitter in Africa, accounting for Zulu, Swahili, Afrikaans, Xhosa and Portuguese are the next most commonly tweeted languages in Africa Tuesdays and Fridays are the most active tweeting days.
Football is the most-discussed topic on Twitter in Africa. Football was discussed more than any other topic, including the death of Nelson Mandela. Our latest research reveals a significantly more sophisticated landscape than we saw just two years ago. This is opening up new opportunities and challenges for companies, campaigning organisations and governments across Africa. Twitter is now established on the continent as a source of information and a platform for conversation.
Africa Heritage. May — May Telecom services worsened, characterized by frequently dropped phone calls, prolonged internet service interruptions, and slow response times to service failures see Obstacles to Access. Facebook, Twitter, Yahoo, and CNN were inaccessible for 12 hours in July , while the number of permanently blocked webpages also increased see Limits on Content.
The government launched sophisticated surveillance malware against several online journalists in the Ethiopian diaspora and dissidents in exile see Violations of User Rights. Six bloggers of the prominent Zone9 blogging collective were arrested in April on charges of terrorism see Violations of User Rights. Introduction Ethiopia continues to have one of the lowest rates of internet and mobile phone connectivity in the world, as meager infrastructure, government monopoly over the telecommunications sector, and obstructive telecom policies have significantly hindered the growth of information and communication technologies ICTs in the country.
Ethiopia is one of 10 least connected in the digital world in mobile phone and internet use. Telecom and Internet Surveillance in Ethiopia. A country is not about its leaders but of its people. It goes without saying that the people are the symbolic mirror of their nation. On the contrast, heartbroken, timid and unhappy people are subjects of dictatorial, callous and brutal regimes. Such people are robbed of their humanity and identity through systematic harassment, intimidation, unlawful detention, extra judicial killing and disappearances by the leaders who transformed themselves into creators of human life or lords.
One does not need to be a rocket scientist to figure this out. All it takes is a closer look at any Oromos in the face. The story is the same on all the faces: fear, uncertainty, and an unquenchable thirst for freedom. The disturbing melody of the sobs in the dark echo the rhythmic desire to break free from TPLF dictatorial shackles.
Today dissents in Oromia are frequently harassed, arrested, tortured, murdered and put through sham trials, while the people are kept in a constant state of terror through tight media control, as repeatedly reported by several human rights groups. It has been long time since the Woyane government bans most foreign journalists and human rights organizations and NGOs from operating in the country for the aim of hiding its brutal governance from the world.
While the people in Ethiopia are being in terrorized by TPLF gangs, the western powers are yet looking at the country as a very strategic place to fight the so called terrorism in horn African region. You can be killed. You can be arrested. You can be kept in prison for a long time. Or you can disappear in thin air.
Nobody will help. Intimidations, looting Oromo resources and evicting Oromos from their farm lands have become the order of the day everywhere across Oromia. The recent murdering of Tesfahun Chemeda in kallitti prison is a case book of the current Circumstance. The So called EPRDF constitution, as all Ethiopian constitutions had always been under the previous Ethiopian regimes, is prepared not to give legal protections to the Oromo people, but to be used against the Oromo people.
Prisons in the Ethiopia have become the last home to Oromo nationalists, human right activists or political opponent of the regime. Yet the international community is either not interested or have ignored the numerous Human Right abuses in Ethiopia simply because, they think there is stability in the country. Is there no stability in North Korea? For crying out loud, all dictators are dangerous to humanity and shaking their hands is even taboo much more doing business with them.
Because one reason why TPLF is sustaining in power is through the budgetary support and development funding of the EU, the United States and offered diplomatic validation by the corrupted African Union. They would have the capacity to disrupt the economic might of this regime without negatively impacting ordinary citizens, and their failure to do so is directly responsible for the loss of many innocent lives, the torture of many and other grievous human rights abuses.
Helping dictators while they butcher our people is what I cannot understand. What I want to notify here is, on the way of struggling for freedom it is very essential to call on the western powers to stop the support they are rendering to dictators in the name of fighting the so called terrorism in Horn Africa, otherwise it will remain an obstacle for the struggle.
Holding elections alone does not make a country democratic. Where there is no an independent media, an independent judiciary for the rule of law , an independent central bank, an independent electoral commission for a free and fair vote ; neutral and professional security forces; and an autonomous not a rubber stamp parliament, no one should expect that the pseudo election will remove TPLF from power. It does not impose the rule of law; and does not effectively limit governmental power.
No form of dissent is tolerated in the country. As my understanding and as we have observed for more than two decades, it is unthinkable to remove TPLF regime without a military struggle or without popular Uprisings. They are staying, staying, and staying in power — 10, 20, 22 and may be 30 or 40 years. They have developed the mentality of staying on power as their own family and ethnic property.
So that they are grooming their clans, their wives, sons, cats, dogs and even goats to succeed them. They are simply the worst mafia regime and the most politically intolerant in the Africa. It is impossible to remove them electorally because we have been witnessing that the electoral system is fundamentally flawed and indomitably skewed in favor them. Every gesture and every words coming from TPLF gangs in the last several years have confirmed that to remove them by election is nothing but like to dream in daylight.
Therefore, taking part in Pseudo election will have no impact on reducing the pain of the oppressed people. Evidently, the opposition and civil societies have been rendered severely impotent, as any form of dissent attracts the ultimate penalty in Ethiopia. Furthermore, we are watching that this regime is intensifying its repression of democracy each day, and ruling strictly through the instrument of paralyzing fear and the practice of brutality against ordinary citizens.
As we are learning from history, Dictators are not in a business of allowing election that could remove them from their thrones. The only way to remove this TPLF dictatorship is through a military force, popular uprising, or a rebel insurgency: Egypt , Ivory Coast , Tunisia , Libya , Rwanda , Somalia , Liberia , etc. To overthrow this brutal TPLF dictatorship and to end the 22 years of our pain, it is a must to begin the resistance with a nationwide show of defiance including distributing postures of resistance against their brutality across Oromia and the country.
Once a national campaign of defiance begins, it will be easy to see how the TPLF regime will crumble like a sand castle. Besides, we the Oromo Diaspora need to work on strengthening the struggle by any means we can. It is the responsibility of the Diaspora to advance the Oromo cause, and at the same time to determine how our efforts can be aided by the international community.
As well, it is a time for every freedom thirsty Oromo to take part in supporting our organization Oromo liberation Front by any means we can. These days, TPLF regime is standing on one foot and removing it is easier than it appears. Let all oppressed nations organize for the final push to liberty. The biggest fear of Woyane regime is people being organized and armed with weapons of unity, knowledge, courage, vigilance, and justice.
What is needed is a unified, dedicated struggle for justice and sincerity. This should come to an end! Who uses it? Why was it created?
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Fortunately, only eight of the defendants appeared in court to hear the charges, the rest will be tried in absentia. Ha ha ha! Image courtesy of addisvoice. First of all, I would like to thank you profusely for including me in the latest roll call of patriots and freedom fighters.
I am extremely humbled for the honor. Though I have not done enough to deserve one of your highest medals of good citizenship and patriotism, I assure you that the honor will inspire me to do even more to accomplish what is expected of me more effectively and efficiently.
I must also thank you for the free global promotion you have given me and others. I am pleased to report back to you that I have received not condolences, but numerous congratulatory messages from across the world. Prime Minister Ashebir, I should, however, suggest that the list of honorees be expanded to include more deserving patriots and the criteria be more logical.
People like me have not done enough to be in this prestigious roll call of freedom fighters. Terrorism is not an ideology, a conviction or a political program. It signifies sheer belief in brutalizing others; innocent others at that!
It never flies for something substantive. His name was not scrapped from the terrorist list until very recently. Only 8 of the 24 live in the country and hence are arrested. The remaining 16 were all outside the country. We have to take this data with a caution; the sampling error is not mentioned.
This is more so for individuals who do not declare allegiance to any one single party; but could be journalists, students, civil society leaders etc. All of this is euphemism for terrorism….. We now cry out loud! You have nothing to lose but your terror! Endalk argues that the recent action against journalists and activists by the government is basically an attitudinal problem. He fears that this will harshly affect the budding Ethiopian blogosphere and social media space:.
They are basic attitudinal problems of government and they harshly will affect at least budding Ethiopian blogosphere and social media sphere. I have received a lot of advice not to write some critical issues about government on my blog. Some friends of mine even went on to fall out with me for fear of that similar cases could be implicated on me. They always wonder why I would play with fire. Since the disputed election of alone, the government retracted the accreditation of foreign correspondent journalists from Voice of America, Deutsche-Welle and others as part of an effort to obstruct attention garnered by foreign press though all of them regained their accreditation later.
Ethiopian journalist and scholar Abiye Teklemariam facing prosecution in absentia. During the coverage period, Ethio Telecom began enforcing its licensing requirements more strictly in response to the increasing spread of cybercafes, reportedly penalizing Muslim cafe owners more harshly. Violations of the stringent requirements, such as a prohibition on providing Voice-over-IP VoIP services, entail criminal liability. Despite repeated international pressure to liberalize telecommunications in Ethiopia , the government has not eased its grip on the sector.
These two organizations were established as autonomous federal agencies, but both are highly controlled government bodies. During the coverage period, over a hundred websites remained inaccessible in Ethiopia, with a greater number of online tools and services targeted for blocking. The Ethiopian government imposes nationwide, politically motivated internet blocking and filtering that tends to tighten ahead of sensitive political events. The majority of blocked websites are those that feature opposition or critical content run by individuals or organizations based in the country or the diaspora.
A more sophisticated strategy of blocking websites based on a keyword in the URL path, known as deep-packet inspection DPI ,  was detected in May when the Tor network—an online tool that enables users to browse anonymously—was blocked. In January , an independent test conducted by a researcher based in the country found unique URLs that were inaccessible in the country, 62 of which were Ethiopian news websites, 14 of which were political party websites, 37 of which were blogs, and 7 of which were television and online radio websites.
A separate test on over 1, URLs between July and August by the OpenNet Initiative in partnership with Human Rights Watch similarly found 62 websites blocked altogether and numerous others intermittently inaccessible. International news outlets were increasingly targeted for censorship. Facebook and Twitter were also targets of the short-term July blocking. Nevertheless, the incident further increased worries over reports of government plans to block popular social media tools completely.
Meanwhile, the social media curation tool Storify—first blocked in July  —remained blocked during the coverage period,  while the URL shortening tool Bit. In the past few years, the authorities have become more sophisticated in their censorship techniques, electing to block select webpages as opposed to entire websites. Nazret, however, remained completely blocked as of June In addition to increasing blocks of online content, politically objectionable content is often targeted for removal, often by way of threats from security officials who personally seek out users and bloggers to instruct them to take down certain content, particularly critical content on Facebook.
Some restrictions are also placed on mobile phones, such as the requirement for a text message to obtain prior approval from Ethio Telecom if it is to be sent to more than ten recipients. There are no procedures for determining which websites are blocked or why, which precludes any avenues for appeal. There are no published lists of blocked websites or publicly available criteria for how such decisions are made, and users are met with an error message when trying to access blocked content.
Meanwhile, the decision-making process does not appear to be controlled by a single entity, as various government bodies—including the Information Network Security Agency INSA , Ethio Telecom, and the ministry of ICT—seem to be implementing their own lists, contributing to a phenomenon of inconsistent blocking. Lack of adequate funding is a significant challenge for independent online media in Ethiopia, as fear of government pressure dissuades local businesses from advertising with politically critical websites.
Local newspapers and web outlets receive their news and information from regime critics and opposition organizations in the diaspora. While the domestic Ethiopian blogosphere has been expanding, most blogging activity on Ethiopian issues still originates in the diaspora. Few Ethiopian journalists work for both the domestic print media and overseas online outlets due to the threat of repercussions.
Fear of pervasive surveillance has led to widespread self-censorship, and many bloggers publish anonymously to avoid reprisals. Despite extremely low levels of internet access, the authorities employ progovernment commentators and trolls to proactively manipulate the online news and information landscape.
Acrimonious exchanges between commentators on apologist websites and an array of diaspora critics and opposition figures have become common in online political debates. According to the ESAT report, hundreds of bloggers who report directly to government officials had been trained on how to post progovernment comments and criticize antigovernment articles on social media platforms.
As the country prepares for the upcoming National Election, the state media has stepped up its campaign against the press in general and the use of social media in particular, claiming that foreign agents and terrorists are using social media to destabilize the country. Nevertheless, over the past few years, Facebook has become one of the most popular mediums through which Ethiopians share and consume information. Social media services have also become significant platforms for political deliberation and social justice campaigns.
Ethiopian bloggers and social media users flocked online to spread the FreeZone9Bloggers hashtag in a campaign that quickly swept across the social media sphere and garnered widespread support from around the world. Within five days, the FreeZone9Bloggers hashtag had been tweeted more than 8, times. A new proclamation passed in November empowered INSA with sweeping surveillance capabilities without judicial oversight. Sophisticated malware was launched against online radio journalists and dissidents in exile, while repression against bloggers and ICT users in the country increased notably.
Six bloggers of the critical Zone9 blogging collective were arrested for their alleged terrorist activities. The Ethiopian constitution guarantees freedom of expression, freedom of the press, and access to information, while also prohibiting censorship. In September , the government codified specific restrictions on various telecommunications activities through the passage of the Telecom Fraud Offences law,  which revised a law that had placed bans on certain communication applications, such as Voice over Internet Protocol VoIP  —including Skype and Google Voice—call back services, and internet-based fax services.
Most alarmingly, the Telecom Fraud Offences law extended the violations and penalties defined in the Anti-Terrorism Proclamation and Criminal Code to electronic communications, which are broadly defined yet explicitly include both mobile phone and internet services. Most alarmingly, six bloggers from the critical Zone9 blogging collective and three journalists associated with Zone9 were arrested in late April on charges of terrorism. Numerous other journalists and media outlets—both online and print—were targeted for arrest and prosecutions during the coverage period, including Darsema Sori and Khalid Mohammed who were arrested in August for their work with the online radio station, Radio Bilal, which is known for its extensive coverage of the antigovernment protests organized by Ethiopian Muslims.
Given the high degree of online repression in Ethiopia, some political commentators use proxy servers and anonymizing tools to hide their identities when publishing online and to circumvent filtering, though the ability to communicate anonymously has become more difficult.
Anonymity is further compromised by strict SIM card registration requirements. Upon purchase of a SIM card through Ethio Telecom or an authorized reseller, individuals must provide their full name, address, government-issued identification number, and a passport-sized photograph. Internet subscribers are also required to register their personal details, including their home address, with the government. In , an inside informant leaked worrying details of potential draft legislation that seeks to mandate real-name registration for all internet users in Ethiopia, though there are no further details of this development as of mid Government surveillance of online and mobile phone communications is pervasive in Ethiopia, and evidence has emerged in recent years that reveal the scale of such practices.
According to Human Rights Watch research, there are strong indications that the government has deployed a centralized monitoring system from the Chinese telecommunications firm ZTE, known as ZXMT, to monitor phone lines and various types of communications, including mobile phone networks and the internet. Another ZTE technology, known as ZSmart, is a customer management database installed at Ethio Telecom that provides the government with full access to user information and the ability to intercept SMS text messages and record phone conversations.
INSA reportedly uses sophisticated spyware, such as the commercial toolkit FinFisher—a device that can secretly monitor computers by turning on webcams, record everything a user types with a key logger, and intercept Skype calls—to target dissidents and supposed threats. There has been an increasing trend of exiled dissidents targeted with surveillance malware in the past few years.
In the same month, the Electronic Frontier Foundation filed a similar suit in the United States on behalf of another Ethiopian dissident and American citizen identified publicly under the pseudonym Mr. For a period following the elections, cybercafe owners were required to keep a register of their clients, but the requirement has not been enforced since mid Government security agents frequently harass and intimidate bloggers, online journalists, and ordinary users for their online activities.
Independent bloggers are often summoned by the authorities to be warned against discussing certain topics online, while activists claim that they are consistently threatened by state security agents for their online activism. Bloggers from Zone9, for example, reported suffering a considerable amount of harassment for their work, leading them to go silent for several months. Shortly after the blog announced on Facebook that it was resuming activities in April , six Zone9 bloggers were arrested and sent to a federal detention center in Addis Ababa where the torture of detainees is reportedly common.
What is your dream? Morgan Marquis-Boire et al. After spending almost three decades as a political prisoner in his own country, Nelson Mandela emerged from his cell and quickly became one of the most revered world leaders. Nelson Mandela was not only a great leader; he was a student of great leadership. As a boy, he was dazzled by stories of African leaders from the 17th and 18th centuries, and he saw himself as part of that grand tradition.
He was raised by the Regent of the Tembu tribe, who allowed him to sit in on tribal councils. Mandela once told me that the Regent would never speak until the end, and then he would summarize what had been said and try to form a consensus. He would almost always wait until the end to speak and then see if he could forge a consensus. To him that was the African way. Mandela was not only a student of great leadership; he was intent on creating great African leaders.
He believed that there was a dearth of great leaders in Africa, and he was keen on motivating a new generation of leadership for the continent. I was with Mandela during many meetings with South African and international leaders. He would note if a leader was polite or deferential. He did not like leaders who were overly emotional or histrionic.
He prized directness. He had no tolerance for leaders who were not honest. And he would sometimes smile ruefully if someone was in over his head. Mandela believed that African leaders needed to be different than Western leaders. As the head of the African National Congress, and as the president of South Africa, he always sought consensus.
He once told me that as a boy he had spent many days herding cattle, and that the way you lead cattle is from behind. By that he meant, you must marshal your forces and make sure that your people are ready to go in the direction where you want to lead them. Mandela led from the front and behind, and it is his spirit that is behind the Young African Leadership Initiative.
Mandela understood that leaders are made as well as born, and that circumstances bring forth great leaders. The brave man is not he who does not feel afraid, but he who conquers that fear. People must learn to hate, and if they can learn to hate, they can be taught to love, for love comes more naturally to the human heart than its opposite. Mandela at a funeral for 12 people who died during township unrest in Soweto, South Africa, Sept. Mandela greets supporters behind the fence in the mining town of Randfontein, west of Johannesburg, Nov.
He toured the area as part of his campaign for the presidential election. President Mandela goes on a walkabout round Trafalgar Square in London on his way to South Africa House, where he made a speech from the balcony. It has been said that Mandela had come face-to-face with death at many junctures in his long life. A man who single-handedly saved Mandela has recently come forward with his story. Namoota hedduu biratti maandelaan Goota. Yeroo baayyee nama gad of qabu, nama gaarii, amanamaa, nama warra biraafis yaadu.
Nelson Mandelaan Adooleessa 18 bara dhalatanii naannoo dur gurraachonni Afrikaa kibbaa keessa jiraatan Transkei jedhamtu keessatti guddatan. Maandeellaan kooleejii fi mana barnootaa kan seeraa yeroo seenan nama ANC keessaa Oliver Thamboo wajjin turan. Gurraachootaaf gorsa seeraa baasii tokko malee tola ykn gatii xiqqoo gaafachuun gargaaraa turan. Ummatii cunqurfamoon addunyaa ammoo isa akka fkn laalan.
Dubbii tana araaraan fixuutti akka Maandellaan jaalatamu tolche. Gama kaaniin ammoo Maandellaan gaafa leenjii waraanaatiif Finfinnee dhufe jeneraalii waraanaa bara sunii Taaddasaa Birruu jalatti leenjifame. Maandellaa leenjisanii nagaa isaallee eegaa bahe. Gama kaaniin ammoo dhaabi fiilmii Amerikaa baasu Holly Woodii fi ka Afrikaa Kibbaalleen seenaa Maandellaafaa shugguxi Maandellaa ta baddee fi seenaa Oromoota isa waliin turanii irralleetti wa hojjachuutti jira.
President: It is with feelings of great sorrow that we in the Oromo Liberation Front and the Oromo people at large learned the passing of Mr. Nelson Mandela, the first elected President of South Africa and a true freedom -fighting icon. On behalf of the Oromo Liberation Front OLF and the Oromo people, I wish to convey my deepest condolences and sympathies to you and the people of South Africa during this time of national mourning.
The passing of Former President Mandela is a tremendous loss not only to South Africa and Africa alone but to the whole world. The world and Africa in particular has lost an extraordinary statesman; a true freedom fighter whose moral strength, dedication and determination liberated his people from the evil of apartheid and set a genuine example for the rest of world.
This gallant son and leader of Africa, through his unconditional sacrifices and heroism transformed his beloved country, South Africa, into peaceful multiracial nation that continues to serve as an example of a true and genuine national reconciliation in the world. We, Oromo, have very fond memories of Mr. General Taddasa Biru trained and prepared Mr.
Mandela for armed struggle. Because of this connection in particular, Mr. Nelson Mandela has become a source of inspiration for those of us struggling for freedom, equality, peace and reconciliation.
We will greatly miss this freedom icon and giant son of Africa. History will remember President Nelson Mandela as a great man and hero. Mandela was a father, a husband, a statesman, a global hero, an anti-apartheid symbol, an advocate of human rights, and a fearless fighter of discrimination. He fought for the equal right of the black people in Apartheid South Africa, and paid a heavy price for the freedom of his people.
He was condemned to a year imprisonment. Despite the prison ordeals, he defended his dignity, civility, discipline, principle, and emerged a better human being. Eventually, he led a pariah state to a new chapter of peace with itself and the world. A passionate and forgiving man, he built a common home for blacks and white races — making animosity between the once sworn enemies a matter of history.
Today, the rainbow nation is a model for a racial equality and tolerance. Added to his popularity and grace was his decision to limit his presidency to one term in the continent often incumbents die in the office or removed by coup. Mandela was a prisoner of conscience, but he was a free man at last. Today, there are tens of thousands of Oromo prisoners of conscience in Ethiopian prisons.
Mandela was once considered a terrorist. Today, the Ethiopian government often labels one who advocates for the rights of the Oromo people as a terrorist. The Oromo nation had a historical connection to a man who changed the world through his words and actions. The Oromo nation takes pride in teaching a military science and training Mandela needed to spark the struggle of the people of South Africa. Mandela cut his teeth under General Taddasa Birru and Capt.
Fekadu Wakane. The Oromo nation also foiled an assassination attempt against the life of Nelson Mandela. Captain Dinka Guta is still a living witness for that. We are also happy that Dr. Neville Alexander, a son of an Oromo slave, fought for the independence of the people of South Africa, and imprisoned with Mandela at the same prison.
Today, the world is a better place for humanity because of a meaningful life he lived and a remarkable legacy he left behind. We are grieving his death, but humanity is better off because of his universal message of love, peace, harmony, understanding, human rights, and democracy. Our prayers and thoughts are with his family and the people of South Africa during this difficult time.
Family, friends and world leaders recalled Nelson Mandela as disciplined but mischievous, courageous yet humble. Kathrada, who spent 26 years in prison with Mandela, choked up several times during his address. She depicted Mandela as a stern, but fun-loving and mischievous grandfather who loved telling stories. Residents of Qunu and surrounding villages and ordinary South Africans who traveled from all over the country were not permitted inside the tent.
Instead, hundreds watched Nandi Mandela and the other speakers on a giant screen set up in a distant field overlooking the Mandela compound, and at other public viewing sites around the country. As they watched the service in the field, mourners recalled how Mandela threw Christmas parties for the children of Qunu and surrounding villages, plying them with shoes, uniforms, and bags for school. Please, you must go to school. The next day, Magqirha returned, and was told to hop into a military truck, where he was presented with cleats, socks, shorts and shirts for the entire team.
A young woman sat gazing towards the gravesite, crying. Others stood peering through binoculars towards the Mandela compound. Two police officers took a selfie, the funeral tent in the background. A man raised one fist in the air, holding a poster of Mandela in his other hand, gazing into the distance.
Then two busloads of men from neighboring KwaZulu Natal province, wielding spears and shields, offered a tribute in music and dance to Mandela, gyrating through the field. Ultimately, Ramaphosa, the master of ceremonies, had to plead with the ancestors for extra time, as the ceremony went about an hour longer than expected. A small, private burial service followed at the family gravesite nearby. Three helicopters carrying South African flags whizzed by, and military jets passed overhead in tribute as mourners sprinted towards them in a futile dash.
A canon salute boomed and smoke filled the village air. As coverage on the big screen ended, a woman seated in the front row wearing an elegant purple dress raised her hand and waved goodbye. As a boy, he lived in a rondavel — a grass hut — with a dirt floor.
He learned to be a shepherd. He fetched water from the spring. He excelled at stick fighting with the other boys. He sat at the feet of old men who told him stories of the brave African princes who ruled South Africa before the coming of the white man. The first time he shook the hand of a white man was when he went off to boarding school. Eventually, little Rolihlahla Mandela would become Nelson Mandela and get a proper Methodist education, but for all his worldliness and his legal training, much of his wisdom and common sense — and joy — came from what he had learned as a young boy in the Transkei.
Mandela might have been a more sentimental man if so much had not been taken away from him. His freedom. His ability to choose the path of his life. His eldest son. Two great-grandchildren. Nothing in his life was permanent except the oppression he and his people were under. And everything he might have had he sacrificed to achieve the freedom of his people.
But all the crude jailers, tiny cells and bumptious white apartheid leaders could not take away his pride, his dignity and his sense of justice. Even when he had to strip and be hosed down when he first entered Robben Island, he stood straight and did not complain. He refused to be intimidated in any circumstance.
I remember interviewing Eddie Daniels, a 5-ft. Mandela walking tall through the courtyard and he would feel revived. I always thought that in a free and nonracial South Africa, Mandela would have been a small-town lawyer, content to be a local grandee. This great, historic revolutionary was in many ways a natural conservative. But one thing turned him into a revolutionary, and that was the pernicious system of racial oppression he experienced as a young man in Johannesburg.
When people spat on him in buses, when shopkeepers turned him away, when whites treated him as if he could not read or write, that changed him irrevocably. For deep in his bones was a basic sense of fairness: he simply could not abide injustice.
If he, Nelson Mandela, the son of a chief, tall, handsome and educated, could be treated as subhuman, then what about the millions who had nothing like his advantages? The Empire States of Ethiopia is a product of colonial conquest. Ethiopia is formed during the 19the century colonial scramble for Africa after the Abyssinian State, the only Black colonial power that took part in the colonial partition of Africa, conquered the Oromos, Sidamas, Ogadenese and other present day Southern Ethiopian peoples.
Because of the conquest, the Oromos and other subject peoples were forcefully incorporated into Abyssinia, which was later on renamed Ethiopia. Stated differently, the defining characteristics of the Ethiopian Empire state, since its formation up to present, are the denial of national rights, human rights, and freedoms to the Oromo and other subject peoples. The Emperor Haile Sillassie regime, which was laboring in consolidation of the colonial conquests and Amharization of the conquered peoples, was engaged in gross violation of human rights, including practice of slavery and servitude failed to sign the Universal Declaration of Human Rights that, among others, abolished slavery and servitude and set standard for human rights protection.
It is instructive to note that, the Emperor Haile Sillassie regime declined from signing the Universal Declaration of Human Rights with, among others, the then minority apartheid regime of South Africa, the other notorious regime for being anti-human rights. It is a mockery that the Ethiopian Military regime that failed to be a party to International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, became a party to International Conventions that prohibit racial discrimination, discrimination against women and the Conventions on the Rights of the Child.
Unlike the incumbent Tigrai Peoples Liberation Front, TPLF led Ethiopian regime, the two preceding Ethiopian regimes did not pretend to be champions of human rights and stayed out of the International Instruments and Mechanisms made and established for ensuring the protections of Human Rights and freedoms. In this light, you may find the following document of great historical significance. As regards the condition required by Article I of the Covenant [accord] regarding effective guarantees of a sincere intention to observe international obligations, the Sub-committee pointed out that, in the past, Ethiopia had not fully observed her international engagements.
Clear distinction between the Abyssinian State and the territories conquered by it. Difference of religion, language, history, race, and political and social structure. The gebbar system a form of slavery applied to subject populations.
On this subject it is first of all necessary to obtain a fundamental idea of the position. Nothing could be further from the facts. The Ethiopian State, in its present form, is composed of two regions which are clearly distinct both geographically and politically.
But the old Abyssinian State itself could not be called a national State, because even in those regions there are considerable non-Abyssinian minorities, such as the Agau in the Tsana and Nile regions, the Falasha of Semien, professing the Jewish religion …and others.
Nevertheless, their common allegiance to the dynasty of the House of Solomon, and the fact that for ages they [peoples of the northern half of Ethiopia] had belonged to the same group of States, have to a certain extent welded all these regions into a political unit which, though rough and shapeless in structure, might have a position of its own in the composition of present-day Ethiopia. This Abyssinian State has well-defined and exact historical, geographical and ethnical boundaries.
On the west, towards the Nile basin, and on the east, towards Danakil, the frontier of the Abyssinian State coincided with the edge of the plateau. The Abyssinians, a mountain people, are clearly distinguished by race, language and religion from the populations which inhabit the torrid Danakil plain and the valleys sloping down towards the Sudan.
To the south, the boundary of the Abyssinian State was marked by the course of the Blue Nile as far as its confluence with the Adabai, by the watershed between the Blue Nile and the Awash, and by the course of the river Awash as far as its entry into the Danakil plain. The territories beyond these boundaries, in the south, are inhabited by non-Abyssinian populations which, throughout the centuries of their history, have been traditional enemies of the Abyssinian State.
Among the principal may be mentioned the Emirate of Harrar, which comprised the regions between the river Awash, the Webi Shebeli, and the south-eastern edge of the plateau, having the inhabitants of Ogaden as tributaries. The Emirate of Harrar is a Moslem State which was ruled for centuries by the dynasty of its Emirs, and was the cultural and religious centre of Islam in South-East Africa. The continuous relations maintained by the Emirate with the Arab countries of the Levant had brought that state up to a level of civilisation far superior to that of Abyssinia.
We need only mention the fact that, even to-day, Harrar is the only town in the territory of the present Ethiopian State which is built of masonry and is not composed of huts hovels made of branches, apart from few buildings in Addis Ababa. In the south-west, the kingdom of kafa was founded by the western Sidama peoples. The political and social constitution of this kingdom and its history which comprises at least years of independence, from the fourteenth century to the Abyssinian conquest form the subject of various well-known works published only recently; and, not to quote Italian writers, we need only refer to the voluminous work of the Austrian traveller Franz Bieber.
In the south, there is the kingdom of Wollamo, founded by the Sidama populations of the Omo. How this peaceful little agricultural State was devastated and destroyed by the Abyssinians is described in a work by a Frenchman, M Vanderheym, which is nothing les than an indictment of the Abyssinian State.
Under the patriarchal administration of its sultans of the local dynasty, Jimma had reached a high degree of economic prosperity, which it retained, being the only Moslem State remaining independent of the Abyssinians until the Negus annexed it to Ethiopia a few months ago. Indeed, this warfare might be said to constitute the whole history of Abyssinia itself; records of it existed from at least the fourteenth century onwards. The Abyssinian domination constitutes, in fact, the subjugation of a conquered people by its age-long enemy.
The Abyssinian domination in the conquered countries takes concrete form in the slave trade and the so-called gebbar system. The slave trade will be considered below. I said to the Dedjiajmatch [dejazmach] that the bullets might fall on the mountain and kill someone. The gebbar system is a form of slavery, and is regarded as such by European writers and travellers.
In each of the countries conquered and annexed by Abyssinia, a body of Abyssinian troops is stationed, comprising the soldiers themselves and their families. The inhabitants of the conquered country are registered in families by the Abyssinian chiefs, and to every family of Abyssinians settled in the country there is assigned one or more families of the conquered as gebbar.
The gebbar family is obliged to support the Abyssinian family; it gives that family its own lands, builds and maintains the huts in which it lives, cultivate the fields, grazes the cattle, and carries out every kind of work and performs all possible services for the Abyssinian family. All this is done without any remuneration, merely in token of the perpetual servitude resulting from the defeat sustained thirty years ago.
The gebbar can never obtain freedom from their chains, even by ransom. They must not leave the land assigned for their work, and, if they run away, they themselves are subject to the terrible punishment which are inflicted in Ethiopia, and to which we shall refer shortly, while their village is bound to supply the Abyssinians with another family to be reduced to the condition of gebbar, in place of the fugitive family. As to the effects of slavery and the gebbar system, all who know the facts are agreed: the non-Abyssinian regions of Ethiopia are becoming a vast desert.
And when he leaves the conquered countries to be transferred elsewhere, he takes away with him, and allow his soldiers to take away with them, the greatest possible number of slaves and gebbar to be employed at his new residence. This constant draining of the population of the subject territories is particularly terrible, because the slaves and gabbar are decimated, during the long journeys, by hunger, thirst and ill-treatment from their Abyssinian masters.
We quote evidence from non-Italian sources. Again, whereas Vittorio Bottego estimated the population of the Burji in at ,, there are now no more than 15, people in the region. The responsibility for this rests with a former Governor of Sidamo, named Ato Finkabo, who appears to have carried on a very flourishing business in slaves from these parts.
George Montandon calculates Au pays des Ghimirra, page that the population of Ghimirra has declined in a few years from , to 10, The responsibility of the Addis Ababa Government for this incredible state of affairs in the non-Abyssinian areas of the south is particularly great, because it has compelled some of the more warlike non-Abyssinian peoples to arm themselves in defence of their lives and liberty; and theses foreign peoples, having acquired arms and ammunition, have in their turn become slave-raiders, preying upon the unarmed neighbouring tribes, and so have increased the destruction and the scourge of slavery.
It will thus be seen that the Ethiopian State, administratively and politically disorganised as It is, carries the dire effects of its domination slavery and gebbar into vast regions of East Africa which were conquered by the arms of the Negus only a few years ago. It is surely in the interests of civilisation that the Harrari, [deleted] [Oromo], Somali, Sidama, and other peoples which have for centuries formed separate national entities, should be removed from Abyssinian oppression.
To effect an immediate settlement of this grave problem is, indeed, to act in conformity with the spirit of the covenant, which requires that colonisation should be carried out only by advanced States which are in a position to ensure the development and welfare of the native peoples…. By her conduct, Ethiopia has openly placed herself outside the covenant of the League and has rendered herself unworthy of the trust placed in her when she was admitted to membership.
Italy, rising up against such an intolerable situation, is defending her security, her rights and her dignity. She is also defending the prestige and good name of the League of Nations. They are not the right people to act as mediators. These leaders have regrouped under the regional body IGAD. They blindly support President Kiir without first examining the root causes of the conflict and determining which party is at fault. South Sudan needs honest brokers from amongst past and present leaders with high moral standing who respect human values—not the current tainted IGAD leaders.
The international community must not allow leaders investigated by the ICC for violations of serious international crimes to pretend to act like peace brokers. The people of South Sudan deserve better. He is busy pursuing his brand of peace with President Salva Kiir Mayardit.
South Sudan is one of the few countries he can visit without fear of arrest and transfer to the ICC. The Darfur conflict remains unresolved as women and children continue to be killed by his army and proxy militias.
The state is kept afloat by the United Nations peace-keeping force. President Kabila faces a plethora of armed opposition groups; he used the ICC to get rid of his political opponents while protecting his soldiers and political allies from investigations and prosecutions.
Since , over five millions Congolese are believed killed by his army and by proxy militias of the governments of neighbouring Uganda and Rwanda. Only a few weeks ago, one of the armed militias attempted, without success, to seize power by force in Kinshasa. In the process, many civilians were killed. President Museveni, who seized political power in Uganda in , has supervised the slaughter of more than , civilians in the various wars he has fought from Luwero, through eastern to northern Uganda.
The French and AU soldiers are responsible for keeping him in power. Ethiopia, like Uganda and the CAR, has a government that came to power through the use of military force. The Kenyan situation is different from the traditional military regimes, but their leaders are currently facing charges of crimes against humanity at the ICC for the mass murders that took place after the presidential elections.
On 27 December , at a meeting in Nairobi, primarily because of their track record, the IGAD leaders squandered an opportunity to demonstrate neutrality when they blindly supported President Kiir against Dr Riech Machar without first examining the root causes of the conflict and determining which party is at fault. By issuing threats and taking sides with the principal antagonists, the IGAD leaders demonstrated their common dictatorial credentials and democratic deficit.
There is still a way out of the South Sudan political crisis which unfortunately is being addressed by military means. For a credible and lasting peace in South Sudan, individuals with high moral standing who respect human values from amongst past and present leaders need to be considered for appointment as mediators by the AU or the UN. Similarly, General Daniel Opande, another impartial participant at the negotiations leading to the CAP, is neutral and generally respected by the antagonists.
Africa is not short of talented mediators. It is unreasonable for the AU to send war mongers to negotiate peace. What the AU and the UN can do for South Sudan is to look at stable countries with democratic credentials like Botswana, Ghana, Namibia, Senegal or Tanzania and tap mediators from any of those countries. On the other hand, it is neither shameful nor un-African to go outside the African continent and seek the best peace mediators from any part of the world.
There are many competent and credible mediators in the Nordic region with excellent track record. They can provide the much needed neutrality in the Great Lakes Region in peace-making. Occasionally mistakes are made and it is only natural to correct past mistakes.
Uganda is already too involved in South Sudan going back to the mysterious death of John Garang. Uganda should be kept out of the South Sudan conflict. President Museveni is neither an honest broker nor does he have democratic credentials. He is simply one of the many war lords on the Africa continent who has used force to achieve and retain political power.
Over the years, he has tried to re-brand himself as a statesman but deep down, he remains a war lord. What Dr Machar demands in South Sudan is similar to demands made by Dr Kizza Besigye in Uganda: seeking reform of the electoral commission, an establishment of an impartial police force and an army with a national outlook.
Instead, President Museveni has consistently threatened, arrested, tortured and detained Dr Besigye and other national politicians opposed to his regime. President Kiir is following his many bad examples.